Difference between revisions of "Bagel"

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|name=
| name             = Bagel
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| image           = [[File:Bagel-Plain-Alt.jpg|250px]]
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| caption         = A plain commercially produced bagel (as evidenced by grate marks used in steaming, rather than boiling)
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| alternate_name  = Bajgiel, beigel, beygl
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| country          = [[Poland]]
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| region          = [[Central Europe|Central]] & [[Eastern Europe]], [[North America]], [[Israel]]
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| creator          =
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| course          =
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| type            = Bread
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| served          =
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| main_ingredient  = Wheat dough
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| variations      = [[Montreal-style bagel]], [[pizza bagel]]
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A '''bagel''' ({{lang-yi|בײגל}} ''{{transl|yi|beygl}}''<span style="margin-left:1px">;</span> {{lang-pl|bajgiel}}), also spelled '''beigel''',<ref>[http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/beigel?r=66 Definition: Beigel], retrieved from Dictionary.com website July 11, 2011</ref> is a [[Bread|bread product]] originating in the [[History of Jews in Poland|Jewish communities of Poland]].
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It is traditionally shaped by hand into the form of a ring from [[yeast]]ed [[wheat]] dough, roughly hand-sized, that is first [[Boiling#In cooking|boiled]] for a short time in water and then [[Baking|baked]]. The result is a dense, chewy, doughy interior with a browned and sometimes crisp exterior. Bagels are often topped with seeds baked on the outer crust, with the traditional ones being [[poppy]], [[sunflower]] or [[sesame]] seeds. Some may have [[salt]] sprinkled on their surface, and there are different dough types, such as whole-grain or rye.<ref name="Britannica">Encyclopædia Britannica (2009) [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/48756/bagel Bagel], retrieved February 24, 2009 from Encyclopædia Britannica Online</ref><ref name="The Book of Jewish Food">Roden, Claudia (November 1996). "The Book of Jewish Food: An Odyssey from Samarkand to New York" Excerpt [http://www.myjewishlearning.com/culture/2/Food/Ashkenazic_Cuisine/Poland_and_Russia/The_Bagel.shtml], retrieved April 7, 2015 from My Jewish Learning</ref>
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Though the origins of bagels are somewhat obscure, it is known that they were widely consumed in [[Ashkenazi Jews|eastern European Jewish]] communities from the 17th century. The first known mention of the bagel, in 1610, was in Jewish community ordinances in [[Kraków]], [[Poland]].
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Bagels are now a popular bread product in North America, especially in cities with a large [[Jew]]ish population, many with alternative ways of making them. Like other bakery products, bagels are available (fresh or frozen, often in many flavors) in many major supermarkets in those countries.
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The basic roll-with-a-hole design is hundreds of years old and has other practical advantages besides providing for a more even cooking and baking of the dough: The hole could be used to thread string or dowels through groups of bagels, allowing for easier handling and transportation and more appealing seller displays.<ref>Nathan, Joan (2008) [http://www.slate.com/articles/life/food/2008/11/a_short_history_of_the_bagel.html A Short History of the Bagel: From ancient Egypt to Lender's] ''[[Slate (magazine)|Slate]]'', posted Nov. 12, 2008</ref><ref>Columbia University NYC24 New Media Workshop website [http://www.nyc24.org/2002/issue01/story02/page03.asp History of the Bagel: The Hole Story] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110822153619/http://www.nyc24.org/2002/issue01/story02/page03.asp |date=2011-08-22 }}, retrieved February 24, 2009.</ref>
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== History ==
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Contrary to some beliefs, the bagel was not created in the shape of a [[stirrup]] to commemorate the victory of Poland's King [[John III Sobieski]] over the [[Ottoman Empire]] at the [[Battle of Vienna]] in 1683.
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Linguist [[Leo Rosten]] wrote in ''The Joys of Yiddish'' about the first known mention of the Polish word ''bajgiel'' derived from the Yiddish word ''bagel'' in the "Community Regulations" of the city of [[Kraków]] in 1610, which stated that the item was given as a gift to women in childbirth.<ref>Filippone, Peggy Trowbridge. [http://homecooking.about.com/od/foodhistory/a/bagelhistory.htm Bagel History: Bagels date back to the 1600s], About.com website, retrieved March 27, 2013.</ref>
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In the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, the ''bajgiel'' became a staple of [[Polish cuisine]]<ref>Altschuler, Glenn C. (2008) [http://www.forward.com/articles/14502 Three Centuries of Bagels], a book review of:'' 'The Bagel: The Surprising History of a Modest Bread', by Balinska, Maria, Yale University Press, 2008'', Jewish Daily Press website, published on-line November 05, 2008 in the issue of November 14, 2008</ref> and a staple of the Slavic diet generally.<ref>[[Zinovy Zinik]],'Freelance,' in [[Times Literary Supplement]], Nov., 18, 2011 p.16.</ref> Its name derives from the Yiddish word ''beygal'' from the German dialect word ''beugel'', meaning "ring" or "bracelet".<ref>{{cite book|last1=Davidson|first1=Alan|title=Oxford Companion to Food|date=2006|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=Oxford, England|isbn=9780192806819|page=49|edition=2nd}}<!--|accessdate=3 August 2014--></ref>
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Variants of the word ''beugal'' are used in [[Yiddish]] and in [[Austrian German]] to refer to a similar form of sweet-filled pastry (''Mohnbeugel'' (with poppy seeds) and ''Nussbeugel'' (with ground nuts), or in southern German dialects (where ''beuge'' refers to a pile, e.g., ''holzbeuge'' "woodpile"). According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, 'bagel' derives from the transliteration of the Yiddish'' 'beygl','' which came from the [[Middle High German]] 'böugel' or ring, which itself came from 'bouc' (ring) in [[Old High German]], similar to the [[Old English]] ''bēag'' "ring" and ''būgan'' "to bend, bow".<ref>[http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bagel Merriam-Webster's Dictionary definition of 'bagel'], Merriam-Webster Inc. online, 2009, retrieved 2009-04-24</ref> Similarly, another [[etymology]] in the Webster's New World College Dictionary says that the Middle High German form was derived from the [[Austrian German]] ''beugel'', a kind of [[croissant]], and was similar to the German ''bügel'', a stirrup or ring.<ref>[http://www.yourdictionary.com/bagel Webster's New World College Dictionary definition of 'bagel'], Wiley Publishing Inc., Cleveland, 2005, retrieved 2009-04-24;</ref>
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In the [[Brick Lane]] district and surrounding area of [[London]], England, bagels (or, as locally spelled, "beigels") have been sold since the middle of the 19th century. They were often displayed in the windows of bakeries on vertical wooden dowels, up to a metre in length, on racks.
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[[File:*this* is a bagel.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Bagels with [[cream cheese]] and [[lox|lox (cured salmon)]] are considered a traditional part of [[American Jewish cuisine]] (colloquially known as "lox and a ''schmear''").]]
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Bagels were brought to the [[United States]] by immigrant Polish Jews, with a thriving business developing in [[New York City]] that was controlled for decades by [[Bagel Bakers Local 338]], They had contracts with nearly all bagel bakeries in and around the city for its workers, who prepared all their bagels by hand.
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The bagel came into more general use throughout [[North America]] in the last quarter of the 20th century with automation. [[Daniel Thompson (inventor)|Daniel Thompson]] started work on the first commercially viable bagel machine in 1958; bagel baker [[Lender's Bagels|Harry Lender]], his son, [[Murray Lender]], and [[Florence Sender]] leased this technology and pioneered automated production and distribution of frozen bagels in the 1960s.<ref>Klagsburn, Francine. [https://web.archive.org/web/20130114133636/http://www.thejewishweek.com/viewArticle/c55_a16243/Editorial__Opinion/Opinion.html "Chewing Over The Bagel’s Story"], ''[[The Jewish Week]]'', July 8, 2009. Accessed July 15, 2009.</ref><ref name=nytimes>{{cite news|first=Dennis|last=Hevesi|title=Murray Lender, Who Gave All America a Taste of Bagels, Dies at 81 |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/23/business/murray-lender-dies-at-81-gave-all-america-a-taste-of-bagels.html |work=[[New York Times]] |publisher= |date=2012-03-22 |accessdate=2012-04-19}}</ref><ref name=wp>{{cite news|first=Lily|last=Rothman|title=Murray Lender, the man who brought bagels to the masses |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/murray-lender-the-man-who-brought-bagels-to-the-masses/2012/03/23/gIQACt47VS_story.html |work=[[Washington Post]] |publisher= |date=2012-03-23 |accessdate=2012-04-19}}</ref> Murray also invented pre-slicing the bagel.<ref>{{cite news |title=Murray Lender |url=http://www.economist.com/node/21552989 |newspaper=[[The Economist]] |date=21 April 2012 |accessdate=30 August 2012}}</ref>
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Around 1900, the "bagel brunch" became popular in New York City.<ref name="Adamson Segan 2008 p. 94"/> The bagel brunch consists of a bagel topped with [[lox]], cream cheese, [[caper]]s, tomato, and red onion.<ref name="Adamson Segan 2008 p. 94"/> This and similar combinations of toppings have remained associated with bagels into the 21st century in the US.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Parker |first1=Milton |last2=Freeman |first2=Allyn |title=How to Feed Friends and Influence People: The Carnegie Deli: A Giant Sandwich, a Little Deli, a Huge Success |date=2005 |publisher=John Wiley & Sons |location=Hoboken, N.J. |isbn=0471710350 |page=97 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=vE6I74CXk4kC&pg=PA97&dq=bagel+lox+cream+cheese+capers+tomato+onion&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiLhIT2m-rJAhUGeD4KHTiJDtEQ6AEILzAA#v=onepage&q=bagel%20lox%20cream%20cheese%20capers%20tomato%20onion&f=false |accessdate=2015-12-20}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |last1=Clark |first1=Melissa |title=Setting Out the Bagels and Lox |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/25/dining/setting-out-the-bagels-and-lox.html |accessdate=2015-12-20 |work=[[The New York Times]] |date=2013-09-24}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Warner |first1=Justin |title=The Laws of Cooking* *and How to Break Them |date=2015 |publisher=Flatiron Books |location=New York |isbn=9781250065131 |page=83|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=gQaJCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA83&dq=bagel+lox+cream+cheese+capers+tomato+onion&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiLhIT2m-rJAhUGeD4KHTiJDtEQ6AEINjAB#v=onepage&q=bagel%20lox%20cream%20cheese%20capers%20tomato%20onion&f=false |accessdate=2015-12-20}}</ref>
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In [[Japan]], the first kosher bagels were brought by {{Interlanguage link multi|BagelK|ja|3=ベーグルK}} from New York in 1989. BagelK created green tea, chocolate, maple-nut, and banana-nut flavors for the market in Japan. There are three million bagels exported from the U.S. annually, and it has a 4%-of-duty classification of Japan in 2000. Some Japanese bagels, such as those sold by {{Interlanguage link multi|BAGEL & BAGEL|ja|3=BAGEL & BAGEL}}, are soft and/or sweet; others, such as [[Einstein Bros. Bagels|Einstein Bro. bagels]] sold by [[Costco]] in Japan, are the same as in the U.S.
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== Preparation and preservation ==
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[[File:MontrealBagels.jpg|thumb|left|Saturday morning bagel queue at [[St-Viateur Bagel]], Montreal, Quebec]]
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At its most basic, traditional bagel dough contains wheat flour (without [[Cereal germ|germ]] or [[bran]]), salt, water, and [[Leavening agent|yeast leavening]]. [[Bread flour#Types of Flour|Bread flour]] or other high [[gluten]] flours are preferred to create the firm, dense but spongy bagel shape and chewy texture.<ref name="Britannica" /> Most bagel recipes call for the addition of a sweetener to the dough, often [[barley malt]] (syrup or crystals), honey, [[high fructose corn syrup]], [[sugar]], with or without eggs, milk or butter.<ref name="Britannica" /> Leavening can be accomplished using a [[sourdough]] technique or a commercially produced yeast.
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Bagels are traditionally made by:
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* mixing and kneading the ingredients to form the dough
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* shaping the dough into the traditional bagel shape, round with a hole in the middle, from a long thin piece of dough
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* [[Proofing (baking technique)|proofing]] the bagels for at least 12 hours at low temperature (40–50&nbsp;°F = 4.5–10&nbsp;°C)
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* boiling each bagel in water that may contain additives such as [[lye]], [[baking soda]], [[barley malt syrup]], or [[honey]]
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* baking at between 175&nbsp;°C and 315&nbsp;°C (about 350–600&nbsp;°F)
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It is this unusual production method which is said to give bagels their distinctive taste, chewy texture, and shiny appearance.
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In recent years, a variant has emerged, producing what is sometimes called the steam bagel. To make a steam bagel, the boiling is skipped, and the bagels are instead baked in an oven equipped with a steam injection system.<ref>Reinhart, P., ''The Bread Baker's Apprentice''. Ten Speed Press, 2001, p. 115.</ref> In commercial bagel production, the steam bagel process requires less labor, since bagels need only be directly handled once, at the shaping stage. Thereafter, the bagels need never be removed from their pans as they are refrigerated and then steam-baked. The steam bagel is not considered to be a genuine bagel by purists, as it results in a fluffier, softer, less chewy product more akin to a [[Bread roll|finger roll]] that happens to be shaped like a bagel. Steam bagels are considered lower quality by purists as the dough used is intentionally more [[base (chemistry)|alkaline]]. The increase in [[pH]] is to aid browning, since the steam injection process uses neutral water steam instead of an alkaline solution bath.
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If not consumed immediately, there are storing techniques that can help to keep the bagel moist and fresh. First, cool bagels in a paper bag; wrap the paper bag in a plastic bag (attempting to rid the bags of as much air as possible without squishing the bagels); then freeze for up to six months.<ref>Jonathan, Croswell. [http://www.livestrong.com/article/510977-how-to-keep-a-bagel-moist/ How to Keep a Bagel Moist], August 8, 2011.</ref>
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== Quality ==
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According to a 2012 ''[[Consumer Reports]]'' article, the ideal bagel should have a slightly crispy crust, a distinct "pull" when a piece is separated from the whole by biting or pinching, a chewy inside, and the flavor of bread freshly baked. The taste may be complemented by additions cooked on the bagel, such as onion, garlic, sesame seeds, or poppy seeds. The appeal of a bagel may change upon being toasted. Toasting can have the effect of bringing or removing desirable chewiness, softening the crust, and moderating off-flavors.<ref name="Consumer Reports 2012">{{cite web |url= http://consumerreports.org/cro/bagels/buying-guide.htm |title=Top Bagels – Bagel Buying Guide |work=[[Consumer Reports]]|date=July 2012}}</ref>
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A typical bagel has 260–350 calories, 1.0–4.5 grams of fat, 330–660 milligrams of sodium, and 2–5 grams of fiber. Gluten-free bagels have much more fat, often 9 grams, because of the presence in the dough of ingredients that supplant wheat flour in the original.<ref name="Consumer Reports 2012"/>
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== Varieties ==
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{{See also|Montreal-style bagel}}
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[[File:Bagels-Montreal-REAL.jpg|thumb|250px|Three [[Montreal-style bagel]]s: one [[poppyseed|poppy]] and two [[sesame seed|sesame]] bagels]]
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Traditional bagels in North America can be either [[Montreal-style bagel]] or New York-style,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/05/02/montreal-bagels_n_5247880.html|title=Bagel Wars: Montreal vs. New York-Style Bagels|publisher=Huffington Post|author=Spiegel, Alison|date=May 6, 2014|accessdate=January 17, 2015}}</ref> although both styles reflect traditional methods used in Eastern Europe before bagels' importation to North America. The distinction is less rigid than often maintained.
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The Montreal-style bagel contains [[malt]] and sugar with no salt; it is boiled in honey-sweetened water before baking in a wood-fired oven. It is predominantly of the [[sesame]] "white" seeds variety (bagels in Toronto are similar to those made in New York in that they are less sweet, generally are coated with poppy seeds and are baked in a standard oven).
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In distinction, the New York bagel contains salt and malt and is boiled in water before baking in a standard oven. The resulting bagel is puffy with a moist crust. The Montreal bagel is smaller (though with a larger hole), crunchier, and sweeter.<ref name="7days">{{cite web | url=http://www.7dvt.com/2006/hole-truth | title=The Hole Truth: Vermont's Bagel Bakers Answer The Roll Call | publisher=Seven Days | date=October 17, 2006 | accessdate=June 9, 2011 | author=Horowitz, Ruth}}</ref> There is a belief that New York bagels are the best due to the quality of the local water.<ref>{{cite web|title=Bagels, water and an urban legend|url=http://eatocracy.cnn.com/2011/09/29/bagels-water-and-an-urban-legend/|website=CNN|publisher=CNN|accessdate=18 May 2015|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20151114020138/http://eatocracy.cnn.com/2011/09/29/bagels-water-and-an-urban-legend/|archivedate=14 November 2015}}</ref> However, this belief is heavily debated. For instance, [[Davidovich Bagels]], made in NYC, are a recognized wholesale manufacturer of bagels that use these traditional bagel-making techniques (associated here with the Montreal-style bagel), including kettle boiling and plank baking in a wood fired oven.<ref>{{cite web|last=Arumugam|first=Nadia|title=Taste Test: Dunkin' Donuts' "Fake" Artisan Bagels vs Real Artisan Bagels|url=http://www.forbes.com/sites/nadiaarumugam/2012/04/26/taste-test-dunkin-donuts-fake-artisan-bagels-vs-real-artisan-bagels/|work=FORBES|publisher=Forbes|accessdate=January 1, 2014}}</ref>
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As suggested above, other bagel styles can be found elsewhere, akin to the way in which families in a given culture employ a variety of methods when cooking an indigenous dish. Thus, Chicago-style bagels are baked or baked with steam.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://hometownbagel.com/|title=Hometown Bagel, Inc.|accessdate=2012-04-20}}</ref> The traditional London bagel (or beigel as it is spelled) is harder and has a coarser texture with air bubbles.
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Poppy seeds are sometimes referred to by their Yiddish name, spelled either ''mun'' or ''mon'' (written מאָן), which comes from the German word for poppy, ''Mohn'', as used in ''Mohnbrötchen''. American chef [[John Mitzewich]] suggests a recipe for what he calls “San Francisco-Style Bagels”. His recipe yields bagels flatter than New York-style bagels, characterized by a rough-textured crust.<ref name="ChefJohn1">{{cite web | last =Mitzewich | first =John | authorlink =John Mitzewich | title =San Francisco-Style Bagels – Taking Things to a Hole New Level | work =Food Wishes | publisher =[[Blogger (service)|Blogger]] | date =August 6, 2012 | url =http://foodwishes.blogspot.com/2012/08/san-francisco-style-bagels-taking.html |accessdate =August 7, 2012}}</ref> An [[everything bagel]] may include such toppings as poppy seeds, sesame seeds, onion flakes, caraway seeds, garlic flakes, pretzel salt, and pepper.{{clear}}
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== Non-traditional doughs and types ==
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While normally and traditionally made of [[yeast]]ed [[wheat]], in the late 20th century variations on the bagel flourished. Non-traditional versions that change the dough recipe include [[pumpernickel]], [[rye]], [[sourdough]], [[bran]], [[whole wheat]], and [[Multigrain bread|multigrain]]. Other variations change the flavor of the dough, often using [[blueberry]], [[salt]], [[onion]], [[garlic]], [[Egg (food)|egg]], [[cinnamon]], [[raisin]], [[chocolate chip]], [[cheese]], or some combination of the above. Green bagels are sometimes created for [[St. Patrick's Day]].
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Many corporate chains now offer bagels in such flavors as chocolate chip and French toast.
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Sandwich bagels have been popularized since the late 1990s by specialty shops such as [[Bruegger's]] and [[Einstein Brothers]], and fast food restaurants such as [[McDonald's]].
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Breakfast bagels, a softer, sweeter variety usually sold in fruity or sweet flavors (e.g., cherry, strawberry, cheese, blueberry, cinnamon-raisin, chocolate chip, maple syrup, banana and nuts) are common at large supermarket chains. These are usually sold sliced and are intended to be prepared in a toaster.
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A flat bagel, known as a 'flagel', can be found in a few locations in and around New York City, Long Island, and Toronto. According to a review attributed to New York's ''[[Village Voice]]'' food critic Robert Seitsema, the flagel was first created by [[Brooklyn|Brooklyn's]] 'Tasty Bagels' deli in the early 1990s.<ref>Browne, Alaina [http://newyork.seriouseats.com/2008/09/flat-bagels-flagels-davids-gramercy-nyc.html Flagel = Flat Bagel (review)], retrieved 2009-04-24 from SeriousEats.com website;</ref>
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The New York Style Snacks brand has developed the baked snacks referred to as Bagel Crisps and Bagel Chips, which are marketed as a representation of the "authentic taste" of New York City bakery bagels.<ref>[http://www.newyorkstyle.com/products/ New York Style Baked Snacks]</ref>
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Though the original bagel has a fairly well-defined recipe and method of production, there is no legal [[standard of identity]] for bagels in the United States. Bakers are free to call any bread torus a bagel, even those that deviate wildly from the original formulation.
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== Large scale commercial sales ==
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=== United States supermarket sales ===
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==== 2008 ====
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According to the [[American Institute of Baking]] (AIB), 2008 supermarket sales (52-week period ending January 27, 2009) of the top eight leading commercial fresh (not frozen) bagel brands in the United States:
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* totaled to US$430,185,378 based on 142,669,901 package unit sales.<ref name="AIB">Baking Management (2008) [https://web.archive.org/web/20140307171744/https://www.aibonline.org/resources/statistics/2008bagels.htm AIB website data: Bagels 2008], from ''Baking Management'', p.10, March 2009, Statistics from ''Information Resources'', retrieved 2009-03-23 from ''American Institute of Baking website: Bagels 2008'' updated to March 10, 2009;</ref>
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* the top eight leading brand names for the above were (by order of sales): [[Thomas']], [[Sara Lee Corporation|Sara Lee]], (private label brands) [[Pepperidge Farm]], Thomas Mini Squares, [[Lender's Bagels]] (Pinnacle Foods), Weight Watchers and The Alternative Bagel (Western Bagel).<ref name="AIB"/>
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Further, AIB-provided statistics for the 52-week period ending May 18, 2008, for refrigerated/frozen supermarket bagel sales for the top 10 brand names totaled US$50,737,860, based on 36,719,977 unit package sales.<ref name="AIB2">Baking Management (2008) [https://web.archive.org/web/20140307171744/https://www.aibonline.org/resources/statistics/2008bagels.htm AIB website data: Bagels 2008], from ''Redbook, July 2008, p.20, Statistics from ''Information Resources'', retrieved 2009-03-23 from ''American Institute of Baking website: Bagels 2008'' updated to March 10, 2009</ref> Price per package was $3.02 for fresh, $1.38 for frozen.
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==== 2012 ====
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The AIB reported US$626.9 million fresh bagel US supermarket sales (excluding Wal-Mart) for the 52 weeks ending 11 April 2012.<ref name="AIBO">[https://www.aibonline.org/ AIB International], [https://web.archive.org/web/20140307171733/https://www.aibonline.org/resources/statistics/2012bagels.htm Bagels 2012]. Data obtained from SymphonyIRI Group from scanner data from Supermarkets, Drugstores, and Mass Merchandisers (does not includeWal-Mart).</ref> Fresh/frozen supermarket sales (excluding Wal-Mart) for the 52 weeks ending 13 May 2012 was US$592.7 million.<ref name="AIBO"/> The average price for a bag of fresh bagels was $3.27; for frozen it was $1.23.
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== Similar breads ==
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[[File:Bublik in Kiev with Sesame.JPG|thumb|Ukrainian ''bublik'']]
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The ''[[bublik]]'' in [[Russia]], [[Ukraine]] and [[Belarus]], and the ''obwarzanek'' (in particular ''[[obwarzanek krakowski]]'') in Poland are essentially larger bagels with a wider hole. Similar to bagels, these breads are usually topped with sesame and poppy seeds. Other ring-shaped breads known among [[East Slavs]] are ''[[baranki]]'' (smaller and drier) and ''[[sushki]]'' (even smaller and drier). In [[Lithuania]], similar breads are called ''riestainiai'' and sometimes by their Slavic name ''baronkos''.
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[[File:Vesirinkelit - 2.jpg|thumb|left|''Vesirinkeli'' from Finland]]
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In [[Finland]], ''[[vesirinkeli]]'' are small rings of yeast-leavened wheat bread. They are placed in salted boiling water before being baked. They are often eaten for breakfast toasted and buttered. They are available in many varieties (sweet or savoury) in supermarkets.
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German ''[[pretzel]]s'' (which are soft and formed into rings or long rectangular shapes) are somewhat similar to bagels in texture, the main exceptions being the shape and the [[Lye|alkaline water]] bath that makes the surface dark and glossy.
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In [[Romania]], ''[[covrigi]]'' are topped with poppy, sesame seeds or large salt grains, especially in the central area of the country, and the recipe does not contain any added sweetener. They are usually shaped like pretzels rather than bagels.
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In some parts of [[Austria]], ring-shaped pastries called ''Beugel'' are sold in the weeks before [[Easter]]. Like a bagel, the yeasted wheat dough, usually flavored with [[caraway]], is boiled before baking. However, the ''Beugel'' is crispy and can be stored for weeks. Traditionally it has to be torn apart by two individuals before eating.{{Citation needed|date=April 2009}}
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[[File:Guangzhou-Nur-Bostani-Restaurant-pseudo-bagel-0504.jpg|thumb|right|A ''girdeh'' (the hole does not go all the way through) from a Muslim restaurant in [[Guangzhou]], China]]
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In [[Turkey]], a salty and fattier form is called ''açma''. However, the ring-shaped [[simit]], is sometimes marketed as Turkish bagel. Archival sources show that the ''simit'' has been produced in Istanbul since 1525.<ref>Sahillioğlu, Halil. “Osmanlılarda Narh Müessesesi ve 1525 Yılı Sonunda İstanbul’da Fiyatlar”. Belgelerle Türk Tarihi 2 [The Narh Institution in the Ottoman Empire and the Prices in Istanbul in Late 1525. Documents in Turkish History 2] (Kasım 1967): 56</ref> Based on Üsküdar court records (Şer’iyye Sicili) dated 1593,<ref>Ünsal, Artun. Susamlı Halkanın Tılsımı.[The Secret of the Ring with Sesames] İstanbul: YKY, 2010: 45</ref> the weight and price of simit was standardized for the first time. Famous 17th-century traveler [[Evliya Çelebi]] wrote that there were 70 simit bakeries in Istanbul during the 1630s<ref>''Evliya Çelebi'' Seyahatnâmesi Kitap I. [The Seyahatname Book I] (Prof. Dr. Robert Dankoff, Seyit Ali Kahraman, Yücel Dağlı). İstanbul: YKY, 2006: 231</ref> Jean Brindesi's early 19th-century oil paintings about Istanbul daily life show simit sellers on the streets.<ref>Jean Brindesi, Illustrations de Elbicei atika. Musée des anciens costumes turcs d'Istanbul, Paris: Lemercier, [1855]</ref> [[Warwick Goble]] made an illustration of the simit sellers of Istanbul in 1906.<ref>Alexander Van Millingen, Constantinople (London: Black, 1906) https://www.gutenberg.org/files/39620/39620-h/39620-h.htm</ref> Surprisingly, simit is very similar to the twisted sesame-sprinkled bagels pictured being sold in early 20th century Poland. ''Simit'' are also sold on the street in baskets or carts, like bagels were then.
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The [[Uyghur people|Uyghurs]] of [[Xinjiang]], [[China]] enjoy a form of bagel known as ''girdeh nan'' (from [[Persian language|Persian]], meaning round bread), which is a type of [[naan|nan]], the bread eaten in Xinjiang.<ref>Allen, Thomas B. (March 1996). Xinjiang. ''National Geographic Magazine'', p.&nbsp;36–37</ref>
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== Cultural references ==
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"Bagel" is also a [[Yeshivish (dialect)|Yeshivish]] term for sleeping 12 hours straight—e.g., "I slept a bagel last night." There are various opinions as to the origins of this term. It may be a reference to the fact that bagel dough has to "rest" for at least 12 hours between mixing and baking<ref>Balinska 2008. pp.4–5.</ref> or simply to the fact that the hour hand on a clock traces a bagel shape over the course of 12 hours.
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In tennis, a "bagel" refers to a player winning a set 6–0; winning a match 6–0, 6–0, 6–0 is called a "triple bagel".<ref>{{cite book|last1=Collins|first1=Bud|last2=Hollander|first2=Zander|title=Bud Collins' Modern Encyclopedia of Tennis|date=1994|publisher=Visible Ink Press|isbn=978-0-8103-9443-8|pages=484–485|edition=2, illustrated|ref=collins}}</ref>
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''[[Bublitchki (song)|Bublitchki]]'' or ''bagelach'' is a title of a famous Russian and Yiddish song written in [[Odessa]] in the 1920s. [[The Barry Sisters]] together with the [[Ziggy Elman|Ziggy Elman Orchestra]] made it popular in the US in 1939. Until today it belongs to the repertoire of [[klezmer]], [[jazz]] and pop musicians.
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== See also ==
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{{Div col|cols=2}}
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* [[Appetizing store]] {{nb10}}
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* [[Bagel and cream cheese]]
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* [[Bagel Bites]]
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* [[Bialy (pastry)|Bialy]]
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* [[Delicatessen|Deli]]
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* [[Doughnut]]
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* [[Ka'ak]]
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* [[Lender's Bagels]]
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* [[Pletzel]]
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{{Div col end}}
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== References ==
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===Citations===
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{{Reflist|30em|refs=
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<ref name="Adamson Segan 2008 p. 94">{{cite book | last=Adamson | first=M.W. | last2=Segan | first2=F. | title=Entertaining from Ancient Rome to the Super Bowl: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia | publisher=ABC-CLIO | year=2008 | isbn=978-0-313-08689-2 | url=https://books.google.com/books?id=PPDIx6WWuOQC&pg=PA94 | page=94}}</ref>
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}}
 
}}
  
===Bibliography===
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'''koth_bagel''' is a [[King of the Hill]] map made by the mapmaker Yrr.
* Balinska, Maria (2008). ''The Bagel: The Surprising History of a Modest Bread'', Yale University Press, November 2008, {{ISBN|0-300-11229-7}}, {{ISBN|978-0-300-11229-0}}
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It was originally born in a 72hr mapping contest. The tubular capture point is based off gullywash' "nipple" caputure point in mid.
 
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It was one  of the most well received maps in the MapChamp event in [[MixChamp]].
== External links ==
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{{Commons category|Bagels}}
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* [http://vimeo.com/32267253 Bagels Return To the Lower East Side] (origin of American bagels)
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* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A223886 The Bagel's History] on [[H2G2]]
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* Einstein, Brothers. [http://www.kitchenproject.com/history/bagels/bagels.htm The History of Bagels], October 20, 2009
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* Nathan, Joan. [http://www.slate.com/id/2204140/ A Short History of Bagels], Slate, November 12, 2008
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* Weinzweig, Ari. [https://www.theatlantic.com/food/archive/2009/03/the-secret-history-of-bagels/6928/ The Secret History of Bagels], The Atlantic, March 26, 2009
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{{Jewish bread}}
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== Usage in competitive ==
{{Ring and knot-shaped breads}}
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{{Bagel/MapLeagueInclusionTable}}
{{Street food}}
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[[Category:Bagels|*]]
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{{Active Maps Navbox}}{{All Maps Navbox|y}}
[[Category:Jewish breads]]
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[[Category:Polish cuisine]]
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[[Category:Yeast breads]]
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[[Category:Seeded breads]]
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[[Category:Snack foods]]
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[[Category:Street food]]
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[[Category:Polish inventions]]
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Revision as of 06:40, 10 August 2017

Bagel
[e][h]
Bagel.jpg
Map Information
Map Type:
File Name:
koth_bagel_rc2a
Version:
Release Candidate 2
Author:
First Released:
2016-07-24
Last Updated:
2017-03-12
Official Map:
IncorrectIcon.png
Competitive Information
Game Modes:
League Popularity:
Trial
In Current Rotations:
4v4:
UGC-Icon2.png
Total Inclusions:
4v4:
1 inclusion (10th)
Links
Download Link Steam Workshop Page TF2Maps.net Forum Thread TeamFortressTV Forum Thread
Control Point.png Maps portal

koth_bagel is a King of the Hill map made by the mapmaker Yrr. It was originally born in a 72hr mapping contest. The tubular capture point is based off gullywash' "nipple" caputure point in mid. It was one of the most well received maps in the MapChamp event in MixChamp.

Usage in competitive

Seasonal Inclusions by League
[view] Map version 4v4 6v6 Highlander
UGC-Icon2.png UGC UGC-Icon2.png UGC ETF2L-Icon2.png ETF2L EseaLogo.png ESEA Ozfortress Icon.png ozfortress AsiaFortress-Icon.png AsiaFortress UGC-Icon2.png UGC ETF2L-Icon2.png ETF2L
Download Link koth_bagel_b4 Season 23 Season Season Season Season Season Season
Download Link koth_bagel_a10 Season 9 Season Season Season Season Season Season
Total inclusions 1 out of 15 1 out of 28 out of 31 out of 28 out of 23 out of 14 out of 26 out of 17

Bold italics denotes the current or latest season