Difference between revisions of "Gravel Pit"

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'''cp_gravelpit''' is a single-stage [[Attack/Defend|Attack / Defend]] map made by Valve. It was one of the six maps included with Team Fortress 2's retail release.
{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2013}}
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[[File:Gravel on a beach in Thirasia, Santorini, Greece.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm)]]
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[[File:Gravel1.jpg|thumb|right|250px|A [[gravel road]] in [[Terre Haute, Indiana]]]]
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[[File:gravel small.jpg|right|frame|Gravel being unloaded from a [[barge]]]]
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'''Gravel''' {{IPAc-en|ˈ|ɡ|r|æ|v|əl}} is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel is classified by [[Particle size (grain size)|particle size]] range and includes size classes from [[Granule_(geology)|granule]]- to [[boulder]]-sized fragments. In the [[Udden-Wentworth scale]] gravel is categorized into granular gravel ({{convert|2|to|4|mm|in|abbr=on|disp=or}}) and [[pebble]] gravel ({{convert|4|to|64|mm|in|1|abbr=on|disp=or}}). One cubic metre of gravel typically weighs about 1,800 kg (or a cubic yard weighs about 3,000 pounds).
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The objective of Gravel Pit varies on the side. BLU's objective is to capture all of the three points, meanwhile RED's objective is to defend the points until the time limit runs out. Points A and B can be captured in any order, but point C is always captured last.
 
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Gravel is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many [[road]]ways are [[pavement (roads)|surfaced]] with gravel, especially in [[rural]] areas where there is little [[traffic]]. Globally, far more roads are surfaced with gravel than with [[concrete]] or [[tarmac]]; [[Russia]] alone has over {{convert|400000|km|mi|abbr=on}} of [[gravel road]]s.<ref>{{cite web|title=1 KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY|url=http://ir.knust.edu.gh/bitstream/123456789/5763/1/BENJAMIN%20GBEVE.pdf|website=1 KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY}}</ref> Both [[sand]] and small gravel are also important for the manufacture of [[concrete]].
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==Geological formation==
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Large gravel deposits are a common geological feature, being formed as a result of the [[weathering]] and [[erosion]] of rocks. The action of rivers and waves tends to pile up gravel in large accumulations. This can sometimes result in gravel becoming compacted and concreted into the [[sedimentary rock]] called [[Conglomerate (geology)|conglomerate]]. Where natural gravel deposits are insufficient for human purposes, gravel is often produced by quarrying and crushing hard-wearing rocks, such as sandstone, limestone, or basalt. Quarries where gravel is extracted are known as gravel pits. Southern England possesses particularly large concentrations of them due to the widespread deposition of gravel in the region during the [[Ice Age]]s.
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===Modern production===
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As of 2006, the United States is the world's leading producer and consumer of gravel.<ref>[http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs/2006/mcs2006.pdf Mineral Commodity Summaries 2006] 2009</ref><ref>[http://www.indexmundi.com/en/commodities/minerals/silica/silica_t11.html Industrial Sand And Gravel (Silica): World Production, By Country] 2009</ref>
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==Etymology==
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The word ''gravel'' comes from the [[Breton language]].  In Breton, "grav" means coast.  Adding the "-el" suffix in Breton denotes the component parts of something larger.  Thus "gravel" means the small stones which make up such a beach on the coast. Many dictionaries ignore the Breton language, citing [[Old French]] ''gravele''<ref>Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 30 August 2012 from CollinsDictionary.com website:http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/gravel</ref> or ''gravelle''.<ref>Gravel, n., ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) © Oxford University Press 2009</ref>
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Gravel often has the meaning a mixture of different size pieces of stone mixed with sand and possibly some clay. In American English, small stones without sand mixed in are known as [[crushed stone]].<ref>"gravel." Noah Webster's 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language. 2015. http://1828.mshaffer.com/d/word/gravel (8 January 2015)</ref><ref>"Gravel, n." def. 1.  Whitney, William Dwight. The Century Dictionary; an Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language,. Vol. 3. New York: Century, 1889. 2607. Print.</ref>
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==Types==
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[[File:Gravel small stones.jpg|thumb|250px|Gravel with stones sized roughly between 5 and 15 mm]]
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[[File:Kiesgrube Bernau 2012 - panoramio (7).jpg|thumb|250px|Sand and gravel separator in a gravel pit in [[Brandenburg]] (eastern Germany)]]
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Types of gravel include:
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* '''Bank gravel''': naturally deposited gravel intermixed with sand or [[clay]] found in and next to rivers and streams.  Also known as "bank run" or "river run".
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* '''Bench gravel''': a bed of gravel located on the side of a valley above the present stream bottom, indicating the former location of the stream bed when it was at a higher level.
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*'''Creek rock or river rock''': this is generally rounded, semi-polished stones, potentially of a wide range of types, that are dredged or scooped from [[stream bed]]s. It is also often used as concrete aggregate and less often as a paving surface.
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*'''Crushed stone''': rock crushed and graded by screens and then mixed to a blend of stones and fines. It is widely used as a surfacing for roads and driveways, sometimes with [[tar]] applied over it. Crushed stone may be made from [[granite]], [[limestone]], [[dolostone]], and other rocks. Also known as "crusher run", DGA (dense grade aggregate) QP (quarry process), and shoulder stone.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.braenstone.com/crushed-stone/quarry-process-qp-dga/|title=Quarry Process - QP, DGA - NJ, NY, NYC, PA|website=www.braenstone.com}}</ref>
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* '''Fine gravel''': gravel consisting of particles with a diameter of 2 to 4&nbsp;mm.
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* '''Lag gravel''': a surface accumulation of coarse gravel produced by the removal of finer particles.
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* '''Pay gravel''': also known as "pay dirt"; a nickname for gravel with a high concentration of gold and other precious metals. The metals are recovered through [[gold panning]].
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* '''Pea gravel''': gravel that consists of small, rounded stones used in concrete surfaces. Also used for walkways, driveways and as a substrate in home aquariums.
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* '''Piedmont gravel''': a coarse gravel carried down from high places by mountain streams and deposited on relatively flat ground, where the water runs more slowly.
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* '''Plateau gravel''': a layer of gravel on a plateau or other region above the height at which stream-terrace gravel is usually found.
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==Relationship to plant life==
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In locales where gravelly soil is predominant, plant life is generally more sparse.<ref>C.Michael Hogan. 2010. [http://www.eoearth.org/article/Abiotic_factor?topic=49461 ''Abiotic factor''. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds Emily Monosson and C. Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130608071757/http://www.eoearth.org/article/Abiotic_factor?topic=49461 |date=8 June 2013 }}. Washington DC</ref> This outcome derives from the inferior ability of gravels to retain moisture, as well as the corresponding paucity of mineral nutrients, since finer soils that contain such minerals are present in smaller amounts.
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==See also==
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* [[Construction aggregate]]
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* [[Pebble]]
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* [[Rock (geology)|Rock]]
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==References==
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{{reflist|30em}}
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==External links==
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{{Commonscat-inline|Gravel}}
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{{Geotechnical engineering|state=collapsed}}
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[[Category:Sedimentology]]
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[[Category:Building stone]]
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[[Category:Natural materials]]
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[[Category:Pavements]]
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[[Category:Gardening aids]]
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[[Category:Stone]]
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[[Category:Soil-based building materials]]
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This match is played in [[Stopwatch]] mode. In Stopwatch mode, in the first round one of the teams attacks, and the other defends. The attackers attempt to capture points. Every time after a point is captured, it is added to the team's total, and the time from the beginning of the round to the capture's finish is recorded. Once the round ends (either by the attackers capturing all points or the round time limit running out), the teams switch places. Now, the previous defenders, who are now attacking, need to either capture as many points as the opponents, but in a quicker time, or capture one more point until the round limit runs out (if the opponent failed to capture all points).
  
 
== Usage in competitive ==
 
== Usage in competitive ==

Revision as of 06:41, 10 August 2017

Gravel Pit
[e][h]
Gravel Pit.jpg
Map Information
Map Type:
File Name:
cp_gravelpit
Version:
Official Release
Author:
First Released:
9 October 2007
Last Updated:
9 October 2007
Official Map:
CorrectIcon.png
Competitive Information
Game Modes:
League Popularity:
Obsolete
Last Played:
Total Inclusions:
4v4:
1 inclusion (10th)
6v6:
52 inclusions (6th)
HL:
17 inclusions (7th)
Links
Download Link Official Team Fortress Wiki Page Official Team Fortress Wiki Page (Competitive)
Control Point.png Maps portal

cp_gravelpit is a single-stage Attack / Defend map made by Valve. It was one of the six maps included with Team Fortress 2's retail release.

The objective of Gravel Pit varies on the side. BLU's objective is to capture all of the three points, meanwhile RED's objective is to defend the points until the time limit runs out. Points A and B can be captured in any order, but point C is always captured last.

This match is played in Stopwatch mode. In Stopwatch mode, in the first round one of the teams attacks, and the other defends. The attackers attempt to capture points. Every time after a point is captured, it is added to the team's total, and the time from the beginning of the round to the capture's finish is recorded. Once the round ends (either by the attackers capturing all points or the round time limit running out), the teams switch places. Now, the previous defenders, who are now attacking, need to either capture as many points as the opponents, but in a quicker time, or capture one more point until the round limit runs out (if the opponent failed to capture all points).

Usage in competitive

Seasonal Inclusions by League
[view] Map version 4v4 6v6 Highlander
UGC-Icon2.png UGC UGC-Icon2.png UGC ETF2L-Icon2.png ETF2L EseaLogo.png ESEA Ozfortress Icon.png ozfortress AsiaFortress-Icon.png AsiaFortress UGC-Icon2.png UGC ETF2L-Icon2.png ETF2L
cp_gravelpit Season 1 Season 14 Season 12 Season 14 Season 10 Season 6 Season 12 Season 9
Season 13 Season 11 Season 13 Season 9 Season 4 Season 11 Season 8
Season 11 Season 10 Season 12 Season 8 Season 3 Season 8 Season 7
Season 10 Season 9 Season 11 Season 7 Season 1 Season 6 Season 6
Season 9 Season 8 Season 10 Season 6 Season 5 Season 5
Season 8 Season 7 Season 9 Season 5 Season 4 Season 4
Season 7 Season 6 Season 8 Season 4 Season 3 Season 3
Season 6 Season 5 Season 7 Season 3 Season 2 Season 1
Season 5 Season 4 Season 6 Season 2 Season 1
Season 4 Season 3 Season 5 Season 1
Season 3 Season 2 Season 4
Season 2 Season 1 Season 3
Season 1 Season 2
Total inclusions 1 out of 15 13 out of 28 12 out of 31 13 out of 28 10 out of 23 4 out of 14 9 out of 26 8 out of 17
Official map
Pro version

Locations

Point A

Point B

Point C