Difference between revisions of "Gravel Pit"

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| Name        = G-spot<br />Gräfenberg-spot<br />(Gräfenberg's locus)
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| Image      = Female anatomy with g-spot-nb.svg
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| Caption    = Drawing of the female internal sexual anatomy. The G-spot (6) is reportedly located {{convert|5|-|8|cm|abbr=on|0}} into the vagina, at the side of the urethra (9) and the urinary bladder (3).
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{{good article}}
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Silver Tosspot: wtf you fucked it
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The G-spot, also called the '''Gräfenberg spot''' (for German gynecologist [[Ernst Gräfenberg]]), is characterized as<!--NOTE: The words "is characterized as" are used because the G-spot's existence is highly debated and therefore using "is" without these qualifiers is a non-neutral descriptor.--> an [[Erogenous zone|erogenous]] area of the [[vagina]] that, when stimulated, may lead to strong [[sexual arousal]], powerful [[orgasm]]s and potential [[female ejaculation]].<ref name="Rosenthal">See [https://books.google.com/books?id=d58z5hgQ2gsC&pg=PT155 page 135] for prostate information, and [https://books.google.com/books?id=d58z5hgQ2gsC&pg=PT96 page 76] for G-spot and vaginal nerve ending information. {{cite book |first=Martha |last= Rosenthal| title = Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society | publisher =[[Cengage Learning]]|year = 2012|accessdate=January 25, 2014| isbn = 0618755713|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d58z5hgQ2gsC&source=gbs_navlinks_s}}</ref> It is typically reported to be located {{convert|5|-|8|cm|abbr=on|0}} up the front (anterior) vaginal wall between the vaginal opening and the [[urethra]] and is a sensitive area that may be part of the [[#Female prostate|female prostate]].<ref name="TheNakedWoman">{{Cite book|author=Morris, Desmond |title=The Naked Woman: A Study of the Female Body|publisher=Thomas Dunne Books |location=New York|year=2004 |pages=211–212|isbn=0-312-33852-X}}</ref>
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The existence of the G-spot has not been proven; nor has the source of female ejaculation.<ref name="Balon, Segraves">{{cite book|authors=Richard Balon, Robert Taylor Segraves|title=Clinical Manual of Sexual Disorders |publisher= [[American Psychiatric Association|American Psychiatric Publishing]]|year=2009|accessdate=January 24, 2014|page=258|isbn=1585629057|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=YuP3Hb0TMLQC&pg=PA258}}</ref><ref name="Greenberg">{{cite book|authors=Jerrold S. Greenberg, Clint E. Bruess, Sara B. Oswalt|title=Exploring the Dimensions of Human Sexuality|pages=102–104|isbn=1449648517|date=2014|accessdate=October 30, 2014|publisher=[[Jones & Bartlett Publishers]]|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=hm3aTuANFroC&pg=PA102}}</ref> Although the G-spot has been studied since the 1940s,<ref name="TheNakedWoman"/> disagreement persists over its existence as a distinct structure, definition and location.<ref name="Balon, Segraves"/><ref name="Hines">{{cite journal |author=Hines T |date=August 2001 |title=The G-Spot: A modern gynecologic myth |journal=Am J Obstet Gynecol |volume=185 |issue=2 |pages=359–62 | doi=10.1067/mob.2001.115995  |pmid=11518892}}</ref><ref name="Kilchevsky">{{cite journal |authors=Kilchevsky A, Vardi Y, Lowenstein L, Gruenwald I.|title=Is the Female G-Spot Truly a Distinct Anatomic Entity?|journal=[[The Journal of Sexual Medicine]]|volume= 9|issue= 3|pages= 719–26|date=January 2012|pmid=22240236|doi=10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02623.x|layurl=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/01/19/g-spot-does-not-exist_n_1215822.html G-Spot Does Not Exist, 'Without A Doubt,' Say Researchers -|laysource=''[[Huffington Post]]''|laydate=January 19, 2012}}</ref> A 2009 British study concluded that its existence is unproven and subjective, based on questionnaires and personal experience.<ref name="Acton">See [https://books.google.com/books?id=amNcvrLCGZEC&pg=PT98 page 98] for the 2009 King's College London's findings on the G-spot and [https://books.google.com/books?id=kP9bCflZpVkC&pg=PA145 page 145] for ultrasound/physiological material with regard to the G-spot. {{cite book|author=Ashton Acton|title=Issues in Sexuality and Sexual Behavior Research: 2011 Edition|publisher=[[ScholarlyEditions]]|year=2012|accessdate=January 24, 2014|page=|isbn=1464966877|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=amNcvrLCGZEC&source=gbs_navlinks_s}}</ref> Other studies, using [[ultrasound]], have found physiological evidence of the G-spot in women who report having orgasms during [[Sexual intercourse|vaginal intercourse]].<ref name="Acton"/><ref name="Buss, Meston">{{cite book|authors=David M. Buss, Cindy M. Meston|title=Why Women Have Sex: Understanding Sexual Motivations from Adventure to Revenge (and Everything in Between)|publisher= [[Macmillan Publishers|Macmillan]]|year=2009|accessdate=January 24, 2014|pages=35–36|isbn=1429955228|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=slyflT85lXIC&pg=PA35}}</ref> It is also hypothesized that the G-spot is an extension of the [[clitoris]] and that this is the cause of orgasms experienced vaginally.<ref name="Kilchevsky"/><ref name="O'Connell">{{cite journal |vauthors=O'Connell HE, Sanjeevan KV, Hutson JM |title=Anatomy of the clitoris |journal=The Journal of Urology |volume=174 |issue=4 Pt 1 |pages=1189–95 |date=October 2005 |pmid=16145367 |layurl=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/5013866.stm Time for rethink on the clitoris: |laysource=[[BBC News]] |laydate=11 June 2006 |doi=10.1097/01.ju.0000173639.38898.cd}}</ref><ref name="Sex and Society">{{cite book|authors=[[Marshall Cavendish|Marshall Cavendish Corporation]]|title=Sex and Society, Volume 2|isbn =9780761479079|publisher=[[Marshall Cavendish|Marshall Cavendish Corporation]]|year=2009|page=590|accessdate=August 17, 2012|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=YtsxeWE7VD0C&pg=PA590&lpg=PA590}}</ref>
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[[Sexology|Sexologists]] and other researchers are concerned that women may consider themselves to be dysfunctional if they do not experience G-spot stimulation, and emphasize that this is not abnormal.<ref name="Greenberg"/>
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|download=http://fakkelbrigade.eu/maps/cp_gravelpit.bsp
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|officialwiki=Gravel_Pit
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|officialwiki2=Gravel_Pit_(competitive)
  
==Theorized structure==
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|footnotes=
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{{other uses}}
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{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2013}}
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[[File:Gravel on a beach in Thirasia, Santorini, Greece.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm)]]
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[[File:Gravel1.jpg|thumb|right|250px|A [[gravel road]] in [[Terre Haute, Indiana]]]]
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[[File:gravel small.jpg|right|frame|Gravel being unloaded from a [[barge]]]]
  
===Location===
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'''Gravel''' {{IPAc-en|ˈ|ɡ|r|æ|v|əl}} is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel is classified by [[Particle size (grain size)|particle size]] range and includes size classes from [[Granule_(geology)|granule]]- to [[boulder]]-sized fragments. In the [[Udden-Wentworth scale]] gravel is categorized into granular gravel ({{convert|2|to|4|mm|in|abbr=on|disp=or}}) and [[pebble]] gravel ({{convert|4|to|64|mm|in|1|abbr=on|disp=or}}). One cubic metre of gravel typically weighs about 1,800 kg (or a cubic yard weighs about 3,000 pounds).
Two primary methods have been used to define and locate the G-spot as a sensitive area in the vagina: self-reported levels of arousal during stimulation, and stimulation of the G-spot leading to female ejaculation.<ref name="Hines"/> [[Ultrasound]] technology has also been used to identify [[physiological]] differences between women and changes to the G-spot region during sexual activity.<ref name="Acton"/><ref name="Buss, Meston"/>
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The location of the G-spot is typically reported as being about 50 to 80&nbsp;mm (2 to 3&nbsp;in) inside the vagina, on the front wall.<ref name="TheNakedWoman"/><ref name="Sloane">{{cite book|first= Ethel|last=Sloane | title = Biology of Women | publisher =[[Cengage Learning]]|year = 2002|page=34| accessdate = August 25, 2012| isbn = 9780766811423 |url =https://books.google.com/books?id=kqcYyk7zlHYC&pg=PA34}}</ref> For some women, stimulating this area creates a more intense orgasm than clitoral stimulation.<ref name="Buss, Meston"/><ref name="Newsbeat">{{cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/hi/health/newsid_7345000/7345799.stm |title=BBC - Newsbeat - Health - G Shot 'helps women in search of orgasm' |format= |work= BBC News|accessdate=2010-05-02 | date=2008-04-14 |first=Sima |last=Kotecha}}</ref> The G-spot area has been described as needing direct [[Sexual stimulation|stimulation]], such as two fingers pressed deeply into it.<ref name="Cooks, Barr">{{cite book|authors=Robert Crooks, Karla Baur|title=Our Sexuality |publisher= [[Cengage Learning]]|year=2010|accessdate=January 24, 2014|pages=169–170|isbn=0495812943|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=MpRnPtmdRVwC&pg=PA169}}</ref> Attempting to stimulate the area through [[sexual penetration]], especially in the [[missionary position]], is difficult because of the particular angle of penetration required.<ref name="TheNakedWoman"/>
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Gravel is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many [[road]]ways are [[pavement (roads)|surfaced]] with gravel, especially in [[rural]] areas where there is little [[traffic]]. Globally, far more roads are surfaced with gravel than with [[concrete]] or [[tarmac]]; [[Russia]] alone has over {{convert|400000|km|mi|abbr=on}} of [[gravel road]]s.<ref>{{cite web|title=1 KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY|url=http://ir.knust.edu.gh/bitstream/123456789/5763/1/BENJAMIN%20GBEVE.pdf|website=1 KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY}}</ref> Both [[sand]] and small gravel are also important for the manufacture of [[concrete]].
  
===Vagina and clitoris===
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==Geological formation==
Women usually need direct [[Clitoris|clitoral]] stimulation in order to orgasm,<ref name="Rosenthal 2">{{cite book |first=Martha |last= Rosenthal| title = Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society | publisher =[[Cengage Learning]]|year = 2012|pages=134–135|accessdate=January 25, 2014| isbn = 0618755713|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d58z5hgQ2gsC&pg=PT154}}</ref><ref name="Kammerer-Doak">{{cite journal | first = Dorothy | last = Kammerer-Doak | first2 = Rebecca G. | last2 = Rogers | title = Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction | journal = Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America | volume = 35 | issue = 2 | pages = 169–183 | date = June 2008 | pmid = 18486835 | doi = 10.1016/j.ogc.2008.03.006 | url = http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889854508000235 | quote=Most women report the inability to achieve orgasm with vaginal intercourse and require direct clitoral stimulation ... About 20% have coital climaxes...}}</ref> and G-spot stimulation may be best achieved by using both [[Fingering (sexual act)|manual stimulation]] and vaginal penetration.<ref name="TheNakedWoman"/> [[Sex toy]]s are available for G-spot stimulation. One common sex toy is the specially-designed [[G-spot vibrator]], which is a [[phallus]]-like [[Vibrator (sex toy)|vibrator]] that has a curved tip and attempts to make G-spot stimulation easy.<ref name="Taormino">{{cite book | author= [[Tristan Taormino]] | title = The Big Book of Sex Toys | publisher = Quiver|year = 2009|pages=100–101|accessdate = August 25, 2012| isbn = 9781592333554 |url =https://books.google.com/books?id=Hfly-iMkWRkC&pg=PA100}}</ref>  G-spot vibrators are made from the same materials as regular vibrators, ranging from hard plastic, rubber, [[silicone]], [[Gel|jelly]], or any combination of them.<ref name="Taormino"/> The level of vaginal penetration when using a G-spot vibrator depends on the woman, because women's physiology is not always the same. The effects of G-spot stimulation when using the penis or a G-spot vibrator may be enhanced by additionally stimulating other [[erogenous zone]]s on a woman's body, such as the clitoris or [[vulva]] as a whole. When using a G-spot vibrator, this may be done by manually stimulating the clitoris, including by using the vibrator as a [[clitoral vibrator]], or, if the vibrator is designed for it, by applying it so that it stimulates the head of the clitoris, the rest of the vulva and the vagina simultaneously.<ref name="Taormino"/>
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Large gravel deposits are a common geological feature, being formed as a result of the [[weathering]] and [[erosion]] of rocks. The action of rivers and waves tends to pile up gravel in large accumulations. This can sometimes result in gravel becoming compacted and concreted into the [[sedimentary rock]] called [[Conglomerate (geology)|conglomerate]]. Where natural gravel deposits are insufficient for human purposes, gravel is often produced by quarrying and crushing hard-wearing rocks, such as sandstone, limestone, or basalt. Quarries where gravel is extracted are known as gravel pits. Southern England possesses particularly large concentrations of them due to the widespread deposition of gravel in the region during the [[Ice Age]]s.
  
A 1981 case study reported that stimulation of the [[anterior]] vaginal wall made the area grow by fifty percent and that self-reported levels of arousal/orgasm were "deeper" when the G-spot was stimulated.<ref name="Addiego"/><ref name="Newman">{{cite book|author=David H. Newman|title=Hippocrates' Shadow|publisher=[[Simon & Schuster]]|year=2009|accessdate=January 24, 2014|page=130|isbn=1416551549|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=WdWqPHgu3c8C&pg=PA130}}</ref> Another study, in 1983, examined eleven women by [[palpate|palpating]] the entire vagina in a clockwise fashion, and reported a specific response to stimulation of the anterior vaginal wall in four of the women, concluding that the area is the G-spot.<ref name="Taverner"/><ref>{{cite journal |author1=Goldberg, DC |author2=Whipple, B |author3=Fishkin, RE |author4=Waxman H |author5=Fink PJ |author6=Wiesberg M. |year =1983 |title =The Grafenberg Spot and female ejaculation: a review of initial hypotheses. |journal =J Sex Marital Ther. |volume =9 |pages =27–37 |pmid =6686614 |issue =1 |doi=10.1080/00926238308405831}}</ref> In a 1990 study, an anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 2,350 professional women in the United States and Canada with a subsequent 55% return rate. Of these respondents, 40% reported having a fluid release (ejaculation) at the moment of orgasm, and 82% of the women who reported the sensitive area (Gräfenberg spot) also reported ejaculation with their orgasms. Several variables were associated with this perceived existence of female ejaculation.<ref>{{cite journal |author1=Darling, CA |author2=Davidson, JK |author3=Conway-Welch, C. |year =1990 |title =Female ejaculation: perceived origins, the Grafenberg spot/area, and sexual responsiveness |journal = Arch Sex Behav  |volume =19 |pages =29–47 |doi =10.1007/BF01541824 |pmid =2327894 |issue =1}}</ref>
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===Modern production===
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As of 2006, the United States is the world's leading producer and consumer of gravel.<ref>[http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs/2006/mcs2006.pdf Mineral Commodity Summaries 2006] 2009</ref><ref>[http://www.indexmundi.com/en/commodities/minerals/silica/silica_t11.html Industrial Sand And Gravel (Silica): World Production, By Country] 2009</ref>
  
Some research suggests that G-spot and clitoral orgasms are of the same origin. [[Masters and Johnson]] were the first to determine that the clitoral structures surround and extend along and within the labia. Upon studying women's [[sexual response cycle]] to different stimulation, they observed that both clitoral and vaginal orgasms had the same stages of physical response, and found that the majority of their subjects could only achieve clitoral orgasms, while a minority achieved vaginal orgasms. On this basis, Masters and Johnson argued that clitoral stimulation is the source of both kinds of orgasms,<ref name="Masters and Johnson">{{cite book |last=Federation of Feminist Women’s Health Centers |year=1991 |title=A New View of a Woman’s Body |publisher= Feminist Heath Press |pages=46 |isbn=0-9629945-0-2}}</ref><ref name="Archer, Lloyd">{{cite book | authors= John Archer, Barbara Lloyd | title = Sex and Gender | publisher =[[Cambridge University Press]]|year = 2002|pages=85–88| accessdate = August 25, 2012| isbn = 9780521635332 |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=BJ1V9r_J0sUC&pg=PA85}}</ref> reasoning that the clitoris is stimulated during penetration by friction against its hood.<ref name="Lloyd">{{Cite book|author-link = Elisabeth Lloyd | first = Elisabeth Anne | last = Lloyd | title = The Case Of The Female Orgasm: Bias In The Science Of Evolution | isbn = 9780674017061 | publisher = [[Harvard University Press]] | year = 2005 | accessdate = 5 January 2012|page=53| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=6GFNvA6TvlwC&pg=PA53}}</ref>
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==Etymology==
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The word ''gravel'' comes from the [[Breton language]]. In Breton, "grav" means coast.  Adding the "-el" suffix in Breton denotes the component parts of something larger. Thus "gravel" means the small stones which make up such a beach on the coast.  Many dictionaries ignore the Breton language, citing [[Old French]] ''gravele''<ref>Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 30 August 2012 from CollinsDictionary.com website:http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/gravel</ref> or ''gravelle''.<ref>Gravel, n., ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) © Oxford University Press 2009</ref>
  
Researchers at the [[University of L'Aquila]], using ultrasonography, presented evidence that women who experience vaginal orgasms are statistically more likely to have thicker tissue in the anterior vaginal wall.<ref name="Buss, Meston"/> The researchers believe these findings make it possible for women to have a rapid test to confirm whether or not they have a G-spot.<ref name="New Scientist">{{cite book|title=New Scientist|publisher=[[New Scientist|New Science Publications]] (original from [[University of California]])|year=2008|accessdate=January 24, 2014|page=6|volume=197|issue=2638-2649|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=o8o-AQAAIAAJ&q=&dq=&hl=en&sa=X&ei=t_riUsi6C4jcoATvyYCABQ&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAA}}</ref> Professor of [[genetic epidemiology]], Tim Spector, who co-authored research questioning the existence of the G-spot and finalized it in 2009, also hypothesizes thicker tissue in the G-spot area; he states that this tissue may be part of the clitoris and is not a separate erogenous zone.<ref name="New Scientist 2">{{cite book|title=New Scientist|publisher=[[New Scientist|New Science Publications]] (original from [[University of Virginia]])|year=2008|accessdate=March 9, 2015|page=66|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=N6lFAAAAYAAJ&q}}</ref>
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Gravel often has the meaning a mixture of different size pieces of stone mixed with sand and possibly some clay. In American English, small stones without sand mixed in are known as [[crushed stone]].<ref>"gravel." Noah Webster's 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language. 2015. http://1828.mshaffer.com/d/word/gravel (8 January 2015)</ref><ref>"Gravel, n." def. 1.  Whitney, William Dwight. The Century Dictionary; an Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language,. Vol. 3. New York: Century, 1889. 2607. Print.</ref>
  
Supporting Spector's conclusion is a study published in 2005 which investigates the size of the clitoris – it suggests that clitoral tissue extends into the anterior wall of the vagina. The main researcher of the studies, Australian [[Urology|urologist]] Helen O'Connell, asserts that this interconnected relationship is the physiological explanation for the conjectured G-spot and experience of vaginal orgasms, taking into account the stimulation of the internal parts of the clitoris during vaginal penetration. While using [[Magnetic resonance imaging|MRI]] technology, O'Connell noted a direct relationship between the legs or roots of the clitoris and the erectile tissue of the "clitoral bulbs" and corpora, and the distal urethra and vagina. "The vaginal wall is, in fact, the clitoris," said O'Connell. "If you lift the skin off the vagina on the side walls, you get the bulbs of the clitoris – triangular, crescental masses of erectile tissue."<ref name="O'Connell"/> O'Connell et al., who performed dissections on the female genitals of [[cadaver]]s and used photography to map the structure of nerves in the clitoris, were already aware that the clitoris is more than just its glans and asserted in 1998 that there is more erectile tissue associated with the clitoris than is generally described in anatomical textbooks.<ref name="Sloane"/><ref name="Archer, Lloyd"/> They concluded that some females have more extensive clitoral tissues and nerves than others, especially having observed this in young cadavers as compared to elderly ones,<ref name="Sloane"/><ref name="Archer, Lloyd"/> and therefore whereas the majority of females can only achieve orgasm by direct stimulation of the external parts of the clitoris, the stimulation of the more generalized tissues of the clitoris via intercourse may be sufficient for others.<ref name="O'Connell"/>
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==Types==
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[[File:Gravel small stones.jpg|thumb|250px|Gravel with stones sized roughly between 5 and 15 mm]]
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[[File:Kiesgrube Bernau 2012 - panoramio (7).jpg|thumb|250px|Sand and gravel separator in a gravel pit in [[Brandenburg]] (eastern Germany)]]
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Types of gravel include:
  
French researchers Odile Buisson and Pierre Foldès reported similar findings to those of O'Connell's. In 2008, they published the first complete 3D [[Medical ultrasonography|sonography]] of the stimulated clitoris, and republished it in 2009 with new research, demonstrating the ways in which erectile tissue of the clitoris engorges and surrounds the vagina. On the basis of this research, they argued that women may be able to achieve vaginal orgasm via stimulation of the G-spot because the highly innervated clitoris is pulled closely to the anterior wall of the vagina when the woman is sexually aroused and during vaginal penetration. They assert that since the front wall of the vagina is inextricably linked with the internal parts of the clitoris, stimulating the vagina without activating the clitoris may be next to impossible.<ref name="Acton"/><ref name="Pappas">{{cite web |last=Pappas |first=Stephanie |title=Does the Vaginal Orgasm Exist? Experts Debate|publisher=[[LiveScience]] |date=April 9, 2012 |accessdate=November 28, 2012 |url=http://www.livescience.com/19579-vaginal-orgasm-debate.html}}</ref><ref name="Buisson and Foldès 2009">{{cite journal  |last=Buisson|first=Odile|last2=Foldès|first2=Pierre|title=The clitoral complex: a dynamic sonographic study.|journal=[[The Journal of Sexual Medicine]]|volume= 6|issue= 5|pages= 1223–31|year=2009|pmid=19453931 |doi=10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01231.x}}</ref><ref name="Carroll">{{cite book|last=Carroll |first=Janell L.|title=Discovery Series: Human Sexuality|edition=1st|publisher=[[Cengage Learning]]|isbn=1111841896|year=2013<!-- NOTE: Copyright date is 2013 inside of the book. -->|page=103|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=gU3SZSh-eXsC&pg=PT135&dq=&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KgVcUt-tD6i52wXIuIGoCQ&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref> In their 2009 published study, the "coronal planes during perineal contraction and finger penetration demonstrated a close relationship between the root of the clitoris and the anterior vaginal wall". Buisson and Foldès suggested "that the special sensitivity of the lower anterior vaginal wall could be explained by pressure and movement of clitoris's root during a vaginal penetration and subsequent perineal contraction".<ref name="Acton"/><ref name="Buisson and Foldès 2009"/>
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* '''Bank gravel''': naturally deposited gravel intermixed with sand or [[clay]] found in and next to rivers and streams.  Also known as "bank run" or "river run".
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* '''Bench gravel''': a bed of gravel located on the side of a valley above the present stream bottom, indicating the former location of the stream bed when it was at a higher level.
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*'''Creek rock or river rock''': this is generally rounded, semi-polished stones, potentially of a wide range of types, that are dredged or scooped from [[stream bed]]s. It is also often used as concrete aggregate and less often as a paving surface.
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*'''Crushed stone''': rock crushed and graded by screens and then mixed to a blend of stones and fines. It is widely used as a surfacing for roads and driveways, sometimes with [[tar]] applied over it. Crushed stone may be made from [[granite]], [[limestone]], [[dolostone]], and other rocks. Also known as "crusher run", DGA (dense grade aggregate) QP (quarry process), and shoulder stone.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.braenstone.com/crushed-stone/quarry-process-qp-dga/|title=Quarry Process - QP, DGA - NJ, NY, NYC, PA|website=www.braenstone.com}}</ref>
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* '''Fine gravel''': gravel consisting of particles with a diameter of 2 to 4&nbsp;mm.
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* '''Lag gravel''': a surface accumulation of coarse gravel produced by the removal of finer particles.
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* '''Pay gravel''': also known as "pay dirt"; a nickname for gravel with a high concentration of gold and other precious metals. The metals are recovered through [[gold panning]].
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* '''Pea gravel''': gravel that consists of small, rounded stones used in concrete surfaces. Also used for walkways, driveways and as a substrate in home aquariums.
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* '''Piedmont gravel''': a coarse gravel carried down from high places by mountain streams and deposited on relatively flat ground, where the water runs more slowly.
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* '''Plateau gravel''': a layer of gravel on a plateau or other region above the height at which stream-terrace gravel is usually found.
  
===Female prostate===
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==Relationship to plant life==
{{See also|Skene's gland|Urethral sponge}}
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In locales where gravelly soil is predominant, plant life is generally more sparse.<ref>C.Michael Hogan. 2010. [http://www.eoearth.org/article/Abiotic_factor?topic=49461 ''Abiotic factor''. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds Emily Monosson and C. Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130608071757/http://www.eoearth.org/article/Abiotic_factor?topic=49461 |date=8 June 2013 }}. Washington DC</ref> This outcome derives from the inferior ability of gravels to retain moisture, as well as the corresponding paucity of mineral nutrients, since finer soils that contain such minerals are present in smaller amounts.
  
In 2001, the [[International Federation of Associations of Anatomists|Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology]] accepted ''female prostate'' as an accurate term for the Skene's gland, which is believed to be found in the G-spot area along the walls of the urethra. The male prostate is biologically [[Homology (biology)|homologous]] to the Skene's gland;<ref name="Lentz">{{cite book|authors=Gretchen M Lentz, Rogerio A. Lobo, David M Gershenson, Vern L. Katz|title=Comprehensive Gynecology|publisher=[[Elsevier Health Sciences]]|year=2012|accessdate=March 9, 2015|page=41|isbn=0323091318|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X5KT_w6Nye8C&pg=PA41}}</ref> it has been unofficially called the male G-spot because it can also [[prostate massage|be used as an erogenous zone]].<ref name="Rosenthal"/><ref name="Answer">{{cite book|title=The Orgasm Answer Guide|isbn = 0-8018-9396-8|publisher=[[Johns Hopkins University Press|JHU Press]]|year=2009|pages=108–109|accessdate=6 November 2011|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Kkts3AX9QVAC&pg=PA108|author =Barry R. Komisaruk, [[Beverly Whipple]], Sara Nasserzadeh, Carlos Beyer-Flores}}</ref>
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==See also==
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* [[Construction aggregate]]
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* [[Pebble]]
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* [[Rock (geology)|Rock]]
  
[[Regnier de Graaf]], in 1672, observed that the secretions (female ejaculation) by the erogenous zone in the vagina lubricate "in agreeable fashion during coitus". Modern scientific hypotheses linking G-spot sensitivity with female ejaculation led to the idea that non-urine female ejaculate may originate from the Skene's gland, with the Skene's gland and male prostate acting similarly in terms of prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific [[acid phosphatase]] studies,<ref name="Greenberg"/><ref name="Bullough">{{cite book|authors=Vern L. Bullough, Bonnie Bullough|title=Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia|publisher=[[Routledge]]|year=2014|accessdate=October 30, 2014|page=231|isbn=1135825092|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=UHymAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA231}}</ref> which led to a trend of calling the Skene's glands the female prostate.<ref name="Bullough"/> Additionally, the enzyme [[cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5|PDE5]] (involved with [[erectile dysfunction]]) has additionally been associated with the G-spot area.<ref>{{Cite journal|author=Nicola Jones|url=http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn2495|title= Bigger is better when it comes to the G-Spot|date=3 July 2002|journal=[[New Scientist]]}}</ref> Because of these factors, it has been argued that the G-spot is a system of [[gland]]s and [[duct (anatomy)|ducts]] located within the anterior (front) wall of the vagina.<ref name="Cooks, Barr"/> A similar approach has linked the G-spot with the [[urethral sponge]].<ref name="Irvine">{{cite book|author=Janice M. Irvine|title=Disorders of Desire: Sexuality and Gender in Modern American Sexology|publisher=[[Temple University Press]]|year=2014|accessdate=March 9, 2015|page=271|isbn=1592131514|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=uIJXT7ZCTCsC&pg=PA271}}</ref><ref name="Chalker">{{cite book|author=Rebecca Chalker|title=The Clitoral Truth: The Secret World at Your Fingertips|isbn =1609800109|publisher=[[Seven Stories Press]]|year=2011|accessdate=January 24, 2014|page=95|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=m3m3_Uq8qWkC&pg=PA95}}</ref>
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==References==
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{{reflist|30em}}
  
==Clinical significance==
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==External links==
<!--NOTE: This heading is from a redirected article. If you change this heading, make sure to tweak the redirect with the new heading as well.-->
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{{Commonscat-inline|Gravel}}
G-spot amplification (also called G-spot augmentation or the G-Shot) is a procedure intended to temporarily increase pleasure in sexually active women with normal sexual function, focusing on increasing the size and sensitivity of the G-spot. G-spot amplification is performed by attempting to locate the G-spot and noting measurements for future reference. After numbing the area with a local anesthetic, human engineered [[collagen]] is then injected directly under the [[mucosa]] in the area the G-spot is concluded to be in.<ref name="Cooks, Barr "/><ref name="Krychman">{{cite book | author= Michael L. Krychman | title = 100 Questions & Answers About Women's Sexual Wellness and Vitality: A Practical Guide for the Woman Seeking Sexual Fulfillment | publisher =[[Jones & Bartlett Learning]]|year = 2009|page=98| accessdate = January 24, 2014| isbn = 1449630774 |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=3X7UriJY2TsC&pg=PT111&dq=&hl=en&sa=X&ei=4KniUvruHIXvoAS1pYCQAg&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=&f=false}}</ref>
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A position paper published by the [[American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists]] in 2007 warns that there is no valid medical reason to perform the procedure, which is not considered routine or accepted by the College; and it has not been proven to be safe or effective. The potential risks include sexual dysfunction, infection, altered sensation, [[dyspareunia]], adhesions and scarring.<ref name="Cooks, Barr "/> The College position is that it is untenable to recommend the procedure.<ref>{{cite journal |title=ACOG Committee Opinion No. 378: Vaginal "rejuvenation" and cosmetic vaginal procedures |journal=Obstet Gynecol |volume=110 |issue=3 |pages=737–8 |date=September 2007 |pmid=17766626 |doi=10.1097/01.AOG.0000263927.82639.9b}}</ref> The procedure is also not approved by the [[Food and Drug Administration]] or the [[American Medical Association]], and no [[peer review|peer-reviewed]] studies have been accepted to account for either safety or effectiveness of this treatment.<ref name="parties">{{cite web|url=http://abcnews.go.com/print?id=4312986 |publisher=ABC News |title= G-Shot Parties: A Shot at Better Sex?|author=Childs, Dan|date=2008-02-20|accessdate=2010-01-17}}</ref>
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{{Geotechnical engineering|state=collapsed}}
  
==Society and culture==
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[[Category:Sedimentology]]
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[[Category:Building stone]]
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[[Category:Natural materials]]
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[[Category:Pavements]]
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[[Category:Gardening aids]]
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[[Category:Stone]]
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[[Category:Soil-based building materials]]
  
===General skepticism===
 
In addition to general skepticism among gynecologists, sexologists and other researchers that the G-spot exists,<ref name="Balon, Segraves"/><ref name="Greenberg"/><ref name="Hines"/><ref name="Kilchevsky"/> a team at [[King's College London]] in late 2009 suggested that its existence is subjective. They acquired the largest sample size of women to date – 1,800 – who are pairs of twins, and found that the twins did not report a similar G-spot in their questionnaires. The research, headed by Tim Spector, documents a 15-year study of the twins, identical and non-identical. Identical twins share genes, while non-identical pairs share 50% of theirs. According to the researchers, if one identical twin reported having a G-spot, it was more likely that the other would too, but this pattern did not materialize.<ref name="Greenberg"/><ref name="Acton"/> Study co-author Andrea Burri believes: "It is rather irresponsible to claim the existence of an entity that has never been proven and pressurise women and men too."<ref name="BBC8439000">{{cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/8439000.stm |title=BBC News - The G-spot 'doesn't appear to exist', say researchers |work= |accessdate=2010-01-04 |date=2010-01-04}}</ref> She stated that one of the reasons for the research was to remove feelings of "inadequacy or underachievement" for women who feared they lacked a G-spot.<ref name="YvonneRoberts">{{cite news |url=https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/jan/05/g-spot-women-study |title=The real G-spot myth &#124; Yvonne Roberts &#124; Comment is free &#124; guardian.co.uk |format= |work= The Guardian|accessdate=2010-05-02 | location=London | date=2010-01-05}}</ref> Researcher [[Beverly Whipple]] dismissed the findings, commenting that twins have different sexual partners and techniques, and that the study did not properly account for lesbian or bisexual women.<ref name="TimesOnline">{{cite news |url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/science/article6973971.ece |title=What an anti-climax: G-Spot is a myth - Times Online |work= The Times|author=Lois Rogers |accessdate=January 23, 2012| location=London | date=January 3, 2010|archivedate=May 31, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100531122424/http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/science/article6973971.ece}}</ref>
 
  
Petra Boynton, a British scientist who has written extensively on the G-spot debate, is also concerned about the promotion of the G-spot leading women to feel "dysfunctional" if they do not experience it. "We're all different. Some women will have a certain area within the vagina which will be very sensitive, and some won't&nbsp;— but they won't necessarily be in the area called the G spot," she stated. "If a woman spends all her time worrying about whether she is normal, or has a G spot or not, she will focus on just one area, and ignore everything else. It's telling people that there is a single, best way to have sex, which isn't the right thing to do."<ref name="BBCGspotDetected">{{cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7254523.stm |title=BBC NEWS &#124; Health &#124; Female G spot 'can be detected' |format= |work=html |accessdate=2010-01-03 | date=2008-02-20}}</ref>
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== Usage in competitive ==
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{{Gravel Pit/MapLeagueInclusionTable}}
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== Locations ==
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=== Point A ===
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{{Map locations
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| title = Gravel Pit — Point A
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| image = Gravelpit Point A.jpg
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| area1 = A-B connector | x1=186px | y1=61px
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| area2 = Left | x2=149px | y2=164px
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| area3 = Right | x3=650px | y3=161px
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| area4 = A-C connector | x4=37px | y4=94px
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| area5 = Window | x5=493px | y5=258px
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}}
  
===Nerve endings===
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=== Point B ===
G-spot proponents are criticized for giving too much credence to [[anecdotal evidence]], and for questionable investigative methods; for instance, the studies which have yielded positive evidence for a precisely located G-spot involve small participant samples.<ref name="Balon, Segraves"/><ref name="Hines"/> While the existence of a greater concentration of nerve endings at the lower third (near the entrance) of the vagina is commonly cited,<ref name="Rosenthal"/><ref name="Greenberg"/><ref name="Sex and Society"/><ref name="Weiten">{{Cite book|authors=Wayne Weiten, Dana S. Dunn, Elizabeth Yost Hammer|title=Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century|isbn =9781111186630|publisher=Cengage Learning|year=2011|page=386|accessdate=January 5, 2012|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=CGu96TeAZo0C&pg=PT423}}</ref> some scientific examinations of vaginal wall innervation have shown no single area with a greater density of nerve endings.<ref name="Greenberg"/><ref name="Hines"/>
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{{Map locations
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| title = Gravel Pit — Point B
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| image = Gravelpit Point B.jpg
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| area1 = C-B left connector | x1=392px | y1=52px
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| area2 = C-B right connector / Fence | x2=582px | y2=72px
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| area3 = A-B connector | x3=220px | y3=95px
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| area4 = Shed | x4=281px | y4=118px
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| area5 = Short | x5=169px | y5=112px
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| area6 = Shadow side | x6=571px | y6=209px
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| area7 = Rampside | x7=446px | y7=261px
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| area8 = Long | x8=135px | y8=294px
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| area9 = Rock | x9=441px | y9=346px
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}}
  
Several researchers also consider the connection between the Skene's gland and the G-spot to be weak.<ref name="Hines"/><ref name="santos">{{cite journal |author=Santos, F Taboga, S. |year=2003 |title=Female prostate: a review about biological repercussions of this gland in humans and rodents.|journal=Animal Reproduction |volume=3 |issue=1 |pages= 3–18}}</ref> The urethral sponge, however, which is also hypothesized as the G-spot, contains sensitive nerve endings and erectile tissue.<ref name="Irvine"/><ref name="Chalker"/> Sensitivity is not determined by neuron density alone: other factors include the branching patterns of neuron terminals and cross or collateral innervation of neurons.<ref name="pmid10651316">{{cite journal|vauthors=Babmindra VP, Novozhilova AP, Bragina TA |title=The structural bases of the regulation of neuron sensitivity |journal=Neurosci. Behav. Physiol. |volume=29 |issue=6 |pages=615–20 |year=1999 |pmid=10651316 |doi=10.1007/BF02462474 |url=http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=q6h325761132q014&size=largest |accessdate=2010-01-03 |display-authors=etal |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110714081305/http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=q6h325761132q014&size=largest |archivedate=2011-07-14 |df= }}</ref> While G-spot opponents argue that because there are very few tactile nerve endings in the vagina and that therefore the G-spot cannot exist, G-spot proponents argue that vaginal orgasms rely on pressure-sensitive nerves.<ref name="Balon, Segraves"/>
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=== Point C ===
 
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{{Map locations
===Clitoral and other anatomical debates===
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| title = Gravel Pit — Point C
 
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| image = Gravelpit Point C.jpg
The G-spot having an anatomical relationship with the clitoris has been challenged by Vincenzo Puppo, who, while agreeing that the clitoris is the center of female sexual pleasure, disagrees with Helen O'Connell and other researchers' terminological and anatomical descriptions of the clitoris. He stated, "Clitoral bulbs is an incorrect term from an embryological and anatomical viewpoint, in fact the bulbs do not develop from the phallus, and they do not belong to the clitoris." He says that ''clitoral bulbs'' "is not a term used in human anatomy" and that ''[[vestibular bulbs]]'' is the correct term, adding that gynecologists and sexual experts should inform the public with facts instead of hypotheses or personal opinions. "[C]litoral/vaginal/uterine orgasm, G/A/C/U spot orgasm, and female ejaculation, are terms that should not be used by sexologists, women, and mass media," he said, further commenting that the "anterior vaginal wall is separated from the posterior urethral wall by the urethrovaginal septum (its thickness is 10–12 mm)" and that the "inner clitoris" does not exist. "The female perineal urethra, which is located in front of the anterior vaginal wall, is about one centimeter in length and the G-spot is located in the pelvic wall of the urethra, 2–3 cm into the vagina," Puppo stated. He believes that the penis cannot come in contact with the congregation of multiple nerves/veins situated until the angle of the clitoris, detailed by [[Georg Ludwig Kobelt]], or with the roots of the clitoris, which do not have sensory receptors or erogenous sensitivity, during vaginal intercourse. He did, however, dismiss the orgasmic definition of the G-spot that emerged after Ernst Gräfenberg, stating that "there is no anatomical evidence of the vaginal orgasm which was invented by Freud in 1905, without any scientific basis".<ref name="Puppo">{{cite journal |author=Vincenzo Puppo |title=Anatomy of the Clitoris: Revision and Clarifications about the Anatomical Terms for the Clitoris Proposed (without Scientific Bases) by Helen O'Connell, Emmanuele Jannini, and Odile Buisson.|journal=ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology |volume= 2011|issue=ID 261464 |pages=5 |date=September 2011 |pmid=21941661 |doi=10.5402/2011/261464 |pmc=3175415}}</ref>
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| area1 = Tower | x1=429px | y1=34px
 
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| area2 = 3 / Main | x2=326px | y2=85px
Puppo's belief that there is no anatomical relationship between the vagina and clitoris is contrasted by the general belief among researchers that vaginal orgasms are the result of clitoral stimulation; they maintain that clitoral tissue extends, or is at least likely stimulated by the clitoral bulbs, even in the area most commonly reported to be the G-spot.<ref name="Kilchevsky"/><ref name="Sex and Society"/><ref name="Carroll"/><ref name="Can't find it">{{Cite news|first=Brian|last=Alexander|url=http://todayhealth.today.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2012/01/18/10177335-does-the-g-spot-really-exist-scientist-cant-find-it|title=Does the G-spot really exist? Scientist can't find it|publisher=[[MSNBC]].com|date=January 18, 2012|accessdate=March 2, 2012}}</ref> "My view is that the G-spot is really just the extension of the clitoris on the inside of the vagina, analogous to the base of the male penis," said researcher Amichai Kilchevsky. Because female fetal development is the "default" direction of fetal development in the absence of substantial exposure to male hormones and therefore the penis is essentially a clitoris enlarged by such hormones, Kilchevsky believes that there is no evolutionary reason why females would have two separate structures capable of producing orgasms and blames the porn industry and "G-spot promoters" for "encouraging the myth" of a distinct G-spot.<ref name="Can't find it"/>
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  | area3 = 4 | x3=508px | y3=124px
 
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| area4 = 2 / Tires | x4=235px | y4=164px
The general difficulty of achieving vaginal orgasms, which is a predicament that is likely due to nature easing the process of child bearing by drastically reducing the number of vaginal nerve endings,<ref name="Rosenthal"/><ref name="Balon, Segraves"/><ref name="Weiten"/> challenge arguments that vaginal orgasms help encourage sexual intercourse in order to facilitate reproduction.<ref name="Kilchevsky"/><ref name="Lloyd"/> O'Connell stated that focusing on the G-spot to the exclusion of the rest of a woman's body is "a bit like stimulating a guy's testicles without touching the penis and expecting an orgasm to occur just because love is present". She stated that it "is best to think of the clitoris, urethra, and vagina as one unit because they are intimately related".<ref name="Rob Baedeker">{{cite web |last=Rob|first=Baedeker |title=Sex: Fact and Fiction|publisher=[[WebMD]]|pages=2–3|accessdate=November 28, 2012|url=http://men.webmd.com/features/sex-fact-fiction?page=2}}</ref> [[Ian Kerner]] stated that the G-spot may be "nothing more than the roots of the clitoris crisscrossing the urethral sponge".<ref name="Rob Baedeker"/>
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| area5 = 5 | x5=523px | y5=205px
 
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| area6 = 1 | x6=233px | y6=248px
A [[Rutgers University]] study, published in 2011, was the first to map the female genitals onto the sensory portion of the brain, and supports the possibility of a distinct G-spot. When the research team asked several women to stimulate themselves in a [[Functional magnetic resonance imaging|functional magnetic resonance]] (fMRI) machine, brain scans showed stimulating the clitoris, vagina and cervix lit up distinct areas of the women's sensory cortex, which means the brain registered distinct feelings between stimulating the clitoris, the cervix and the vaginal wall – where the G-spot is reported to be.<ref name="Pappas"/><ref name="Woodall">{{cite book |last=Woodall |first=Camay |title=Exploring the Essentials of Healthy Personality: What is Normal?|volume=2 |isbn=1440831955 |publisher=[[ABC-CLIO]]|year=2014|pages=168–169|accessdate=December 10, 2014|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2RaDBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA168}}</ref><ref name="Komisaruk">{{Cite journal|author=Komisaruk, B. R., Wise, N., Frangos, E., Liu, W.-C., Allen, K. and Brody, S. |title=Women's Clitoris, Vagina, and Cervix Mapped on the Sensory Cortex: fMRI Evidence |journal=[[The Journal of Sexual Medicine]] |year=2011|doi=10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02388.x|layurl= http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/08/05/scitech/main20088836.shtml Surprise finding in response to nipple stimulation |laysource=[[CBS]]news.com|laydate=August 5, 2011 |pmid=21797981 |pmc=3186818 |volume=8 |pages=2822–30}}</ref> "I think that the bulk of the evidence shows that the G-spot is not a particular thing," stated Barry Komisaruk, head of the research findings. "It's not like saying, 'What is the thyroid gland?' The G-spot is more of a thing like New York City is a thing. It's a region, it's a convergence of many different structures."<ref name="Kilchevsky"/>
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| area7 = Lower | x7=500px | y7=291px
 
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| area8 = Back right ramp | x8=628px | y8=289px
In 2009, ''[[The Journal of Sexual Medicine]]'' held a debate for both sides of the G-spot issue, concluding that further evidence is needed to validate the existence of the G-spot.<ref name="Greenberg"/> In 2012, scholars Kilchevsky, Vardi, Lowenstein and Gruenwald stated in the journal, "Reports in the public media would lead one to believe the G-spot is a well-characterized entity capable of providing extreme sexual stimulation, yet this is far from the truth." The authors cited that dozens of trials have attempted to confirm the existence of a G-spot using surveys, pathologic specimens, various imaging modalities, and biochemical markers, and concluded:<blockquote>The surveys found that a majority of women believe a G-spot actually exists, although not all of the women who believed in it were able to locate it. Attempts to characterize vaginal innervation have shown some differences in nerve distribution across the vagina, although the findings have not proven to be universally reproducible. Furthermore, radiographic studies have been unable to demonstrate a unique entity, other than the clitoris, whose direct stimulation leads to vaginal orgasm. Objective measures have failed to provide strong and consistent evidence for the existence of an anatomical site that could be related to the famed G-spot. However, reliable reports and anecdotal testimonials of the existence of a highly sensitive area in the distal anterior vaginal wall raise the question of whether enough investigative modalities have been implemented in the search of the G-spot.<ref name="Kilchevsky"/></blockquote>
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  | area9 = Back left ramp | x9=268px | y9=395px
 
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}}
A 2014 review from ''[[Nature Reviews Urology]]'' reported that "no single structure consistent with a distinct G-spot has been identified."<ref name="Jannini">{{Cite journal|vauthors=Jannini EA, Buisson O, Rubio-Casillas A |title=Beyond the G-spot: clitourethrovaginal complex anatomy in female orgasm.|journal=[[Nature Reviews Urology]]|year=2014|doi=10.1038/nrurol.2014.193|volume=11|pages=531–538}}<!--|accessdate=March 9, 2015--></ref>
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==History==
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The release of fluids had been seen by medical practitioners as beneficial to health. Within this context, various methods were used over the centuries to release "female seed" (via [[vaginal lubrication]] or female ejaculation) as a treatment for ''suffocation ex semine retento'' (suffocation of the womb), [[female hysteria]] or [[green sickness]]. Methods included a [[midwife]] rubbing the walls of the vagina or insertion of the penis or penis-shaped objects into the vagina.<ref name="StoryofV">{{cite book|last=Blackledge|first=Catherine|title=The Story of V: A Natural History of Female Sexuality|publisher=Rutgers University Press|date=2003|page=203|isbn=0-8135-3455-0|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=f2d-11Y_u3cC&dq=history+of+v}}</ref> In the book ''History of V'', Catherine Blackledge lists old terms for what she believes refer to the female prostate (the Skene's gland), including ''the little stream'', ''the black pearl'' and ''palace of yin'' in China, ''the skin of the earthworm'' in Japan, and ''saspanda nadi'' in the India sex manual ''[[Ananga Ranga]]''.<ref>Blackledge, p. 201</ref>
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The 17th-century Dutch physician Regnier de Graaf described female ejaculation and referred to an erogenous zone in the vagina that he linked as homologous with the male prostate; this zone was later reported by the German gynecologist [[Ernst Gräfenberg]].<ref name="Roeckelein2006p256">{{cite book | authors = Jon E. Roeckelein | title = ''Elsevier's Dictionary of Psychological Theories'' | publisher = [[Elsevier]] | year = 2006 | page = 256 | accessdate = October 8, 2012 |isbn = 9780444517500| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=1Yn6NZgxvssC&pg=PA256|quote=The ''G-spot'' is not felt normally during a gynecological exam, because the area must be sexually stimulated in order for it to swell and be palpable; physicians, of course, do not sexually arouse their patients and, therefore, do not typically find the woman's ''G-spot''.}}</ref> Coinage of the term ''G-spot'' has been credited to Addiego et al. in 1981, named after Gräfenberg,<ref name="Addiego">{{cite journal |author =Addiego, F; Belzer, EG; Comolli, J; Moger, W; Perry, JD; [[Beverly Whipple|Whipple, B.]] |year =1981|title =Female ejaculation: a case study |journal =Journal of Sex Research |volume =17 |issue =1|pages =13–21 |doi =10.1080/00224498109551094}}</ref> and to Alice Kahn Ladas and [[Beverly Whipple]] et al. in 1982.<ref name="Taverner">{{cite book|author=William J. Taverner|title=Taking Sides: Clashing Views On Controversial Issues In Human Sexuality|publisher= [[McGraw-Hill Education]]|year=2005|accessdate=January 24, 2014|pages=79–82|isbn=1429955228|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=CCpFAAAAYAAJ&q=&hl=en&sa=X&ei=XPXiUoikFtPhoAT7noCQBQ&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAg}}</ref> Gräfenberg's 1940s research, however, was dedicated to urethral stimulation; Gräfenberg stated, "An erotic zone always could be demonstrated on the anterior wall of the vagina along the course of the urethra".<ref name="Gräfenberg1950">{{cite journal |year=1950 |journal=International Journal of Sexology |volume=3 |issue=3 |pages=145–148 |title=The role of urethra in female orgasm |author=Ernest Gräfenberg |url=http://www.landman-psychology.com/284/sexuality/grafenberg-gspot.htm}}</ref> The concept of the G-spot entered popular culture with the 1982 publication of ''[[The G Spot and Other Recent Discoveries About Human Sexuality]]'' by Ladas, Whipple and Perry,<ref name="Taverner"/> but it was criticized immediately by [[Gynaecology|gynecologists]]:<ref name="TheNakedWoman"/><ref name="time1982">{{cite journal |date = September 13, 1982 |title =In Search of the Perfect G |journal =[[Time (magazine)|Time]]|url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,951842-1,00.html}}</ref> some of them denied its existence as the absence of arousal made it less likely to observe, and autopsy studies did not report it.<ref name="TheNakedWoman"/>
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==See also==
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{{Portal|Sexuality}}
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* [[Human female sexuality]]
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* [[Human sexuality]]
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* [[Labiaplasty]]
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* [[Vaginoplasty]]
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* [[Anterior fornix erogenous zone]]
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==References==
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{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}
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==External links==
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* [http://sexuality.about.com/od/gspotfemaleejaculation/a/whatisgspot.htm About.com – Sexuality, "What is the G-Spot?", Cory Silverberg]
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* [http://sexuality.about.com/od/anatomyresponse/ht/findyourgspot.htm About.com – How to Locate Your G Spot]
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* [http://arquivo.pt/wayback/20090711144641/http://www.the-clitoris.com/f_html/ejacula.htm The-Clitoris.com – Female Ejaculation, the Female Prostate, and The G-Spot]
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{{Female reproductive system}}
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{{Sex}}
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{{DEFAULTSORT:G-spot}}
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{{All Maps Navbox}}
[[Category:Vagina]]
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Revision as of 06:38, 10 August 2017

Gravel Pit
[e][h]
Gravel Pit.jpg
Map Information
Map Type:
File Name:
cp_gravelpit
Version:
Official Release
Author:
First Released:
9 October 2007
Last Updated:
9 October 2007
Official Map:
CorrectIcon.png
Competitive Information
Game Modes:
League Popularity:
Obsolete
Last Played:
Total Inclusions:
4v4:
1 inclusion (10th)
6v6:
52 inclusions (6th)
HL:
17 inclusions (7th)
Links
Download Link Official Team Fortress Wiki Page Official Team Fortress Wiki Page (Competitive)
Control Point.png Maps portal
Template:Other uses

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File:Gravel on a beach in Thirasia, Santorini, Greece.jpg
Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm)
File:Gravel small.jpg
Gravel being unloaded from a barge

Gravel Template:IPAc-en is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel is classified by particle size range and includes size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. In the Udden-Wentworth scale gravel is categorized into granular gravel (Template:Convert) and pebble gravel (Template:Convert). One cubic metre of gravel typically weighs about 1,800 kg (or a cubic yard weighs about 3,000 pounds).

Gravel is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic. Globally, far more roads are surfaced with gravel than with concrete or tarmac; Russia alone has over Template:Convert of gravel roads.[1] Both sand and small gravel are also important for the manufacture of concrete.

Geological formation

Large gravel deposits are a common geological feature, being formed as a result of the weathering and erosion of rocks. The action of rivers and waves tends to pile up gravel in large accumulations. This can sometimes result in gravel becoming compacted and concreted into the sedimentary rock called conglomerate. Where natural gravel deposits are insufficient for human purposes, gravel is often produced by quarrying and crushing hard-wearing rocks, such as sandstone, limestone, or basalt. Quarries where gravel is extracted are known as gravel pits. Southern England possesses particularly large concentrations of them due to the widespread deposition of gravel in the region during the Ice Ages.

Modern production

As of 2006, the United States is the world's leading producer and consumer of gravel.[2][3]

Etymology

The word gravel comes from the Breton language. In Breton, "grav" means coast. Adding the "-el" suffix in Breton denotes the component parts of something larger. Thus "gravel" means the small stones which make up such a beach on the coast. Many dictionaries ignore the Breton language, citing Old French gravele[4] or gravelle.[5]

Gravel often has the meaning a mixture of different size pieces of stone mixed with sand and possibly some clay. In American English, small stones without sand mixed in are known as crushed stone.[6][7]

Types

File:Gravel small stones.jpg
Gravel with stones sized roughly between 5 and 15 mm
File:Kiesgrube Bernau 2012 - panoramio (7).jpg
Sand and gravel separator in a gravel pit in Brandenburg (eastern Germany)

Types of gravel include:

  • Bank gravel: naturally deposited gravel intermixed with sand or clay found in and next to rivers and streams. Also known as "bank run" or "river run".
  • Bench gravel: a bed of gravel located on the side of a valley above the present stream bottom, indicating the former location of the stream bed when it was at a higher level.
  • Creek rock or river rock: this is generally rounded, semi-polished stones, potentially of a wide range of types, that are dredged or scooped from stream beds. It is also often used as concrete aggregate and less often as a paving surface.
  • Crushed stone: rock crushed and graded by screens and then mixed to a blend of stones and fines. It is widely used as a surfacing for roads and driveways, sometimes with tar applied over it. Crushed stone may be made from granite, limestone, dolostone, and other rocks. Also known as "crusher run", DGA (dense grade aggregate) QP (quarry process), and shoulder stone.[8]
  • Fine gravel: gravel consisting of particles with a diameter of 2 to 4 mm.
  • Lag gravel: a surface accumulation of coarse gravel produced by the removal of finer particles.
  • Pay gravel: also known as "pay dirt"; a nickname for gravel with a high concentration of gold and other precious metals. The metals are recovered through gold panning.
  • Pea gravel: gravel that consists of small, rounded stones used in concrete surfaces. Also used for walkways, driveways and as a substrate in home aquariums.
  • Piedmont gravel: a coarse gravel carried down from high places by mountain streams and deposited on relatively flat ground, where the water runs more slowly.
  • Plateau gravel: a layer of gravel on a plateau or other region above the height at which stream-terrace gravel is usually found.

Relationship to plant life

In locales where gravelly soil is predominant, plant life is generally more sparse.[9] This outcome derives from the inferior ability of gravels to retain moisture, as well as the corresponding paucity of mineral nutrients, since finer soils that contain such minerals are present in smaller amounts.

See also

References

  1. Template:Cite web
  2. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2006 2009
  3. Industrial Sand And Gravel (Silica): World Production, By Country 2009
  4. Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 30 August 2012 from CollinsDictionary.com website:http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/gravel
  5. Gravel, n., Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) © Oxford University Press 2009
  6. "gravel." Noah Webster's 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language. 2015. http://1828.mshaffer.com/d/word/gravel (8 January 2015)
  7. "Gravel, n." def. 1. Whitney, William Dwight. The Century Dictionary; an Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language,. Vol. 3. New York: Century, 1889. 2607. Print.
  8. Template:Cite web
  9. C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Abiotic factor. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds Emily Monosson and C. Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment Template:Webarchive. Washington DC

External links

Template:Commonscat-inline

Template:Geotechnical engineering


Usage in competitive

Seasonal Inclusions by League
[view] Map version 4v4 6v6 Highlander
UGC-Icon2.png UGC UGC-Icon2.png UGC ETF2L-Icon2.png ETF2L EseaLogo.png ESEA Ozfortress Icon.png ozfortress AsiaFortress-Icon.png AsiaFortress UGC-Icon2.png UGC ETF2L-Icon2.png ETF2L
cp_gravelpit Season 1 Season 14 Season 12 Season 14 Season 10 Season 6 Season 12 Season 9
Season 13 Season 11 Season 13 Season 9 Season 4 Season 11 Season 8
Season 11 Season 10 Season 12 Season 8 Season 3 Season 8 Season 7
Season 10 Season 9 Season 11 Season 7 Season 1 Season 6 Season 6
Season 9 Season 8 Season 10 Season 6 Season 5 Season 5
Season 8 Season 7 Season 9 Season 5 Season 4 Season 4
Season 7 Season 6 Season 8 Season 4 Season 3 Season 3
Season 6 Season 5 Season 7 Season 3 Season 2 Season 1
Season 5 Season 4 Season 6 Season 2 Season 1
Season 4 Season 3 Season 5 Season 1
Season 3 Season 2 Season 4
Season 2 Season 1 Season 3
Season 1 Season 2
Total inclusions 1 out of 15 13 out of 28 12 out of 31 13 out of 28 10 out of 23 4 out of 14 9 out of 26 8 out of 17
Official map
Pro version

Locations

Point A

Point B

Point C