Difference between revisions of "Coalplant"

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[[File:Belchatow-elektrownia.jpg|thumb|upright=1.3|The 5,400 [[megawatt|MW]] [[Bełchatów Power Station]] in Poland – one of the [[List of coal power stations|world's largest]] coal-fired power stations.]]
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A '''fossil fuel power station''' is a [[power station]] which burns [[fossil fuel]] such as [[coal]], [[natural gas]], or [[petroleum]] to produce [[electricity]].  Central station fossil fuel power plants are designed on a large scale for continuous operation. In many countries, such plants provide most of the [[electrical energy]] used.  Fossil fuel power stations have machinery to convert the heat energy of [[combustion]] into [[mechanical energy]], which then operates an [[electrical generator]]. The [[Wiktionary:prime mover|prime mover]] may be a [[steam turbine]], a [[gas turbine]] or, in small plants, a reciprocating [[internal combustion]] engine. All plants use the energy extracted from expanding gas, either steam or combustion gases. Very few [[MHD generator]]s have been built which directly convert the energy of hot, moving water into electricity. MHD means [[Magnetohydrodynamics]], which is the study of the magnetic properties of electrically conducting fluids. Examples of such magnetofluids include plasmas, liquid metals, salt water and electrolytes.
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By-products of thermal power plant operation must be considered in their design and operation. [[Waste heat]] energy, which remains due to the finite efficiency of the [[Carnot cycle|Carnot]], [[Rankine cycle|Rankine]], or [[Diesel cycle|Diesel]] power cycle, is released directly to the atmosphere or river/lake water, or indirectly to the atmosphere using a [[cooling tower]] with river or lake water used as a cooling medium. The [[flue gas]] from combustion of the fossil fuels is discharged to the air. This gas contains [[carbon dioxide]] and water vapor, as well as other substances such as [[nitrogen oxide]]s (NO<sub>x</sub>), [[sulfur oxide]]s (SO<sub>x</sub>), [[mercury (element)|mercury]], traces of other metals, and, for coal-fired plants, [[fly ash]]. Solid waste ash from coal-fired boilers must also be removed. Some coal ash can be recycled for building materials.<ref name="PCA Manual">{{cite web|title=PCA Manual|url=http://www.ce.memphis.edu/1101/notes/concrete/PCA_manual/Chap03.pdf|publisher=University of Memphis, Herff College of Civil Engineering|accessdate=8 January 2013|author=Charles Camp|author2=Department of Civil Engineering}}</ref>
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Fossil fueled power stations are major emitters of [[carbon dioxide]] (CO<sub>2</sub>), a [[greenhouse gas]] which according to a [[Scientific opinion on climate change|consensus opinion of scientific organisations]] is a contributor to [[global warming]]. The results of a recent study<ref>N. Heidari & J. M. Pearce. A Review of Greenhouse Gas Emission Liabilities as the Value of Renewable Energy for Mitigating Lawsuits for Climate Change Related Damages. ''Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews'' '''55'''C (2016) pp. 899-908. DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2015.11.025 [https://www.academia.edu/19418589/A_Review_of_Greenhouse_Gas_Emission_Liabilities_as_the_Value_of_Renewable_Energy_for_Mitigating_Lawsuits_for_Climate_Change_Related_Damages open access]</ref>  show that the [[net income]] available to shareholders of large companies could see a significant reduction from the [[greenhouse gas emissions]] liability related to only natural disasters in the U.S. from a single coal-fired power plant. However, as of 2015, no such cases have awarded damages in the U.S.  Per unit of electric energy, [[brown coal]] emits nearly two times as much CO<sub>2</sub> as natural gas, and black coal emits somewhat less than brown. [[Carbon capture and storage]] of emissions is not currently available.{{Citation needed|reason=Clarification and reliable source needed for the whole sentence; not commercially available? not actively in widespread use? not possible?|date=July 2017}}
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==Basic concepts==
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|footnotes=
In a fossil fuel power plant the chemical energy stored in fossil fuels such as [[coal]], [[fuel oil]], [[natural gas]] or [[oil shale]] and [[oxygen]] of the [[air]] is converted successively into [[thermal energy]], [[mechanical energy]] and, finally, [[electrical energy]]. Each fossil fuel power plant is a complex, custom-designed system. Construction costs, {{As of|2004|lc=on}}, run to [[United States dollar|US$]]1,300 per [[kilowatt]], or $650 million for a 500 [[MWe]] unit{{Citation needed|date=March 2009}}. Multiple generating units may be built at a single site for more efficient use of [[land use|land]], [[natural resource]]s and [[labor (economics)|labor]]. Most [[thermal power station]]s in the world use fossil fuel, outnumbering [[nuclear power|nuclear]], [[geothermal power|geothermal]], [[biomass]], or [[solar energy|solar thermal]] plants.
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===Heat into mechanical energy===
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The [[second law of thermodynamics]] states that any [[Thermodynamic cycle|closed-loop cycle]] can only convert a fraction of the heat produced during combustion into [[mechanical work]]. The rest of the heat, called [[waste heat]], must be released into a cooler environment during the return portion of the cycle. The fraction of heat released into a cooler medium must be equal or larger than the ratio of [[absolute temperature]]s of the cooling system (environment) and the heat source (combustion furnace). Raising the furnace temperature improves the efficiency but complicates the design, primarily by the selection of alloys used for construction, making the furnace more expensive. The waste heat cannot be converted into mechanical energy without an even cooler cooling system. However, it may be used in [[cogeneration]] plants to heat buildings, produce hot water, or to heat materials on an industrial scale, such as in some [[oil refinery|oil refineries]], plants, and [[chemical synthesis]] plants.
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Typical thermal efficiency for utility-scale electrical generators is around 33% for coal and oil-fired plants, and 56 – 60% (LHV) for [[combined-cycle]] gas-fired plants. Plants designed to achieve peak efficiency while operating at capacity will be less efficient when operating off-design (i.e. temperatures too low.)<ref name="ELECTRIC GENERATION
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EFFICIENCY Page 5">{{cite web|url=http://www.npc.org/study_topic_papers/4-dtg-electricefficiency.pdf|title=ELECTRIC GENERATION EFFICIENCY: Working Document of the NPC Global Oil & Gas Study|publisher=Highbeam Research|accessdate=18 July 2007}}</ref>
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Practical fossil fuel stations operating as heat engines cannot exceed the [[Carnot cycle]] limit for conversion of heat energy into useful work. [[Fuel cell]]s do not have the same thermodynamic limits as they are not heat engines.
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'''Temperature of Hot Steam'''.
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Using the reported efficiencies and the efficiency of an ideal [[Carnot engine]] one can estimate the engine temperature. This estimate is the minimum heat water/steam temperature as we neglect other losses. For example, the effective temperature of the cooling water can be significantly higher.
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Assume the cold temperature <math> T_c </math> is 10&nbsp;°C, or 280 K than <math> T_h </math> equals:
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: <math> \eta \,=\, 1 - \frac{T_c}{T_h} </math>
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: <math> T_h  \,=\, \frac{T_c}{1 - \eta} </math>
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: <math> T_h  \,=\, \frac{280}{1 - 0.33} </math>
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: <math> T_h  \,=\, 418\, \mathrm{K} = 145^o \mathrm{C} </math>
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This temperature is presumably much lower than the actual steam temperature due to several losses.
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==Coal==
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[[File:Coal fired power plant diagram.svg|thumb|upright=1.3|Diagram of a typical steam-cycle coal power plant (proceeding from left to right)]]
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{{main|Thermal power station}}
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Coal is the most abundant [[fossil fuel]] on the planet, and widely used as the source of energy in [[thermal power station]]s. It is a relatively cheap fuel, with some of the largest deposits in regions that are stable politically, such as [[China]], [[India]] and the [[United States]]. This contrasts with [[natural gas]], the largest deposits of which are located in Russia, Iran, Qatar, Turkmenistan and the US. Solid coal cannot directly replace natural gas or petroleum in most applications, petroleum is mostly used for [[transportation]] and the natural gas not used for [[electricity generation]] is used for [[space heating|space]], [[water heating|water]] and industrial heating. Coal can be converted to gas or liquid fuel, but the efficiencies and economics of such processes can make them unfeasible.{{Citation needed|date=January 2013}} Vehicles or heaters may require modification to use coal-derived fuels. Coal is an impure fuel and produces more [[greenhouse gas]] and [[pollution]] than an equivalent amount of petroleum or natural gas. For instance, the operation of a 1000-MWe coal-fired power plant results in a nuclear radiation dose of 490 person-rem/year, compared to 136 person-rem/year, for an equivalent nuclear power plant including uranium mining, reactor operation and waste disposal.<ref>https://www.ornl.gov/sites/default/files/ORNL%20Review%20v26n3-4%201993.pdf pg28</ref>
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{{As of|2009}} the largest coal-fired power station is [[Taichung Power Plant]] in [[Taiwan]]. The world's most energy-efficient coal-fired power plant is the [[Avedøre Power Station]] in [[Denmark]].<ref>[http://www.dongenergy.com/en/business%20activities/generation/electricity%20generation/primary%20power%20stations/pages/avedore%20power%20station.aspx Avedøre Power Station] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120225021554/http://www.dongenergy.com/en/business%20activities/generation/electricity%20generation/primary%20power%20stations/pages/avedore%20power%20station.aspx |date=25 February 2012 }} from the web page of [[DONG Energy]]</ref>
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===Fuel transport and delivery===
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[[File:Grand Junction Trip 92007 098.JPG|thumb|Coal-fired power plants provide about 39 percent of consumed electricity in the United States, as of March 2016.<ref>Siera Magazine</ref> This is the [[Carbon Power Plant|Castle Gate Plant]] near [[Helper, Utah]].]]
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Coal is delivered by highway [[truck]], [[railroad|rail]], [[barge]], [[Collier (ship type)|collier]] ship or [[coal slurry pipeline]]. Some plants are even built near coal mines and coal is delivered by conveyors. A large coal [[train]] called a "unit train" may be two kilometers (over a mile) long, containing 130-140 cars with 100 [[short ton]]s of coal in each one, for a total load of over 15,000 tons. A large plant under full load requires at least one coal delivery this size every day. Plants may get as many as three to five trains a day, especially in "peak season" during the hottest summer or coldest winter months (depending on local climate) when power consumption is high. A large thermal power plant such as the now decommissioned [[Nanticoke Generating Station|Nanticoke]], Ontario stores several million metric tons of coal for winter use when the lakes are frozen.
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Modern unloaders use rotary dump devices, which eliminate problems with coal freezing in bottom dump cars. The unloader includes a train positioner arm that pulls the entire train to position each car over a coal hopper. The dumper clamps an individual car against a platform that swivels the car upside down to dump the coal. Swiveling couplers enable the entire operation to occur while the cars are still coupled together. Unloading a unit train takes about three hours.
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Shorter trains may use railcars with an "air-dump", which relies on air pressure from the engine plus a "hot shoe" on each car. This "hot shoe" when it comes into contact with a "hot rail" at the unloading trestle, shoots an electric charge through the air dump apparatus and causes the doors on the bottom of the car to open, dumping the coal through the opening in the trestle. Unloading one of these trains takes anywhere from an hour to an hour and a half. Older unloaders may still use manually operated bottom-dump rail cars and a "shaker" attached to dump the coal. Generating stations adjacent to a mine may receive coal by [[conveyor belt]] or massive [[diesel-electric]]-drive [[haul truck|trucks]].
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A collier (cargo ship carrying coal) may hold 40,000 long tons of coal and takes several days to unload. Some colliers carry their own conveying equipment to unload their own bunkers; others depend on equipment at the plant. For transporting coal in calmer waters, such as rivers and lakes, flat-bottomed [[barge]]s are often used. Barges are usually unpowered and must be moved by [[tugboat]]s or [[towboat]]s.
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For start up or auxiliary purposes, the plant may use fuel oil as well. Fuel oil can be delivered to plants by [[Pipeline transport|pipeline]], [[Tanker (ship)|tanker]], [[tank car]] or truck. Oil is stored in vertical cylindrical steel tanks with capacities as high as {{convert|90000|oilbbl}}' worth. The [[viscosity|heavier]] no. 5 "bunker" and no. 6 fuels are typically steam-heated before pumping in cold climates.
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===Fuel processing===
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Coal is prepared for use by crushing the rough coal to pieces less than {{convert|2|in|cm|sigfig=1}} in size. The coal is then transported from the storage yard to in-plant storage silos by [[conveyor belt]]s at rates up to 4,000 short tons per hour.
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In plants that burn pulverized coal, silos feed coal to [[pulverizer]]s (coal mills) that take the larger {{convert|2|in|mm|adj=on}} pieces, grind them to the consistency of [[talcum powder]], sort them, and mix them with primary combustion air which transports the coal to the boiler furnace and preheats the coal in order to drive off excess moisture content. A 500 MWe plant may have six such pulverizers, five of which can supply coal to the furnace at 250 tons per hour under full load.
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In plants that do not burn pulverized coal, the larger {{convert|2|in|mm|adj=on}} pieces may be directly fed into the silos which then feed either mechanical distributors that drop the coal on a traveling grate or the [[Cyclone furnace|cyclone]] burners, a specific kind of combustor that can efficiently burn larger pieces of fuel.
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==Combined heat and power==
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[[Combined heat and power]] (CHP), also known as [[cogeneration]], is the use of a [[thermal power station]] to provide both electric power and heat (the latter being used i.e. for [[district heating]] purposes). This technology is widely practiced in for example Denmark, as well as other Scandinavian countries and parts of Germany. Calculations show that Combined Heat and Power District Heating (CHPDH) is the cheapest method in reducing (but not eliminating) carbon emissions, if conventional fossil fuels remain to be burned.<ref>[http://www.claverton-energy.com/carbon-footprints-of-various-sources-of-heat-chpdh-comes-out-lowest.html Claverton-energy.co.uk]</ref>
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==Gas turbine plants==
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[[File:GE H series Gas Turbine.jpg|thumb|480 [[megawatt]] GE H series power generation gas turbine]]
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[[File:Currant Creek Power Plant.jpg|thumb|Currant Creek Power Plant near [[Mona, Utah]] is a [[natural gas]] fired electrical plant.]]
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One type of fossil fuel power plant uses a [[gas turbine]] in conjunction with a [[heat recovery steam generator]] (HRSG). It is referred to as a [[combined cycle]] power plant because it combines the [[Brayton cycle]] of the gas turbine with the [[Rankine cycle]] of the HRSG.  The thermal efficiency of these plants has reached a record [[thermal efficiency|heat rate]] of 5690 Btu/(kW·h), or just under 60%, at a facility in Baglan Bay, Wales.<ref>[http://www.ge-energy.com/prod_serv/products/gas_turbines_cc/en/h_system/index.htm GE Power’s H Series Turbine] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071111004450/http://www.ge-energy.com/prod_serv/products/gas_turbines_cc/en/h_system/index.htm |date=11 November 2007 }}</ref>
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The turbines are fueled either with natural gas, [[syngas]] or fuel oil. While more efficient and faster to construct (a 1,000 MW plant may be completed in as little as 18 months from start of construction), the economics of such plants is heavily influenced by the volatile cost of fuel, normally natural gas. The combined cycle plants are designed in a variety of configurations composed of the number of gas turbines followed by the steam turbine. For example, a 3-1 combined cycle facility has three gas turbines tied to one steam turbine. The configurations range from (1-1), (2-1), (3-1), (4-1), (5-1), to (6-1){{Citation needed|date=January 2013}}
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Simple-cycle or open cycle gas turbine plants, without a steam cycle, are sometimes installed as emergency or [[peaking power plant|peaking]] capacity; their thermal efficiency is much lower. The high running cost per hour is offset by the low capital cost and the intention to run such units only a few hundred hours per year. Other gas turbine plants are installed in stages, with an open cycle gas turbine the first stage and additional turbines or conversion to a closed cycle part of future project plans.
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===Dash for gas===
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In the 1990s was the [[dash for gas]] where 30 gas-fired power stations were built in Britain due to plentiful gas supplies from [[North Sea Gas|North Sea oil wells]]. According to the 2012 forecast by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, 27 gigawatts of capacity from coal-fired generators is to be retired from 175 US coal-fired power plants before 2016.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Gerhardt|first=Tina|date=1 November 2012|title=Record Number of Coal Power Plants Retire|url=http://www.emagazine.com/magazine/by-the-numbers-record-number-of-coal-power-plants-retire|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121101010101/http://www.emagazine.com/magazine/by%2Dthe%2Dnumbers%2Drecord%2Dnumber%2Dof%2Dcoal%2Dpower%2Dplants%2Dretire|work=[[E-Magazine]]|dead-url=yes|archivedate=1 November 2012}}</ref> Natural gas showed a corresponding jump, increasing by a third over 2011.<ref name="epm_312">Electric Power Monthly, March 2011 (released May 2012), U.S. Energy Information Administration</ref> Some [[Thermal power station|coal power plants]] such as the 1200 MW [[Hearn Generating Station]] have stopped burning coal by switching the plant to natural gas. Coal's share of electricity generation dropped to just over 36%.<ref name="epm_312" /> Natural gas accounted for 81% of new power generation in the US between 2000 and 2010.<ref>[http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=2070 Most electric generating capacity additions in the last decade were natural gas-fired - Today in Energy - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>  Coal-fired generation puts out about twice the amount of carbon dioxide - around 2,000 pounds for every megawatt hour generated - than electricity generated by burning natural gas at 1,100 pounds of [[greenhouse gas]] per megawatt hour. As the fuel mix in the United States has changed to reduce coal and increase natural gas generation, carbon dioxide emissions have unexpectedly fallen. Carbon dioxide measured in the first quarter of 2012 was the lowest recorded of any year since 1992.<ref>cite web |first=Rachel |last=Nuwer |title=A 20-Year Low in U.S. Carbon Emissions |url=http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/08/17/a-20-year-low-in-u-s-carbon-emissions/ |date=August 17, 2012</ref>  The [[list of natural gas power stations]] has over 100 power stations that generate between 100MW and 5,600MW of electricity. Natural gas plants are increasing in popularity and in 2014 generated 22% of the worlds total electricity.<ref>[http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/KeyWorld2014.pdf pg24 Free publications<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
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==Reciprocating engines==
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[[Diesel engine]] generator sets are often used for prime power in communities not connected to a widespread power grid.  Emergency (standby) power systems may use reciprocating internal combustion engines operated by fuel oil or natural gas.  Standby generators may serve as emergency power for a factory or data center, or may also be operated in parallel with the local utility system to reduce peak power demand charge from the utility.  Diesel engines can produce strong torque at relatively low rotational speeds, which is generally desirable when driving an [[alternator]], but diesel fuel in long-term storage can be subject to problems resulting from water accumulation and [[chemical decomposition]].  Rarely used generator sets may correspondingly be installed as natural gas or LPG to minimize the fuel system maintenance requirements.
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Spark-ignition internal combustion engines operating on gasoline (petrol), [[propane]], or [[Liquefied petroleum gas|LPG]] are commonly used as portable temporary power sources for construction work, emergency power, or recreational uses.
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Reciprocating external combustion engines such as the [[Stirling engine]] can be run on a variety of fossil fuels, as well as renewable fuels or industrial waste heat. Installations of Stirling engines for power production are relatively uncommon.
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==Environmental impacts==
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[[File:Mohave Generating Station 1.jpg|thumb|The [[Mohave Power Station]], a 1,580 [[Megawatt|MW]] coal power station near [[Laughlin, Nevada]], out of service since 2005 due to environmental
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restrictions<ref>[http://www.sce.com/PowerandEnvironment/PowerGeneration/MohaveGenerationStation/ SEC Mohave Generation Station] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080914140440/http://www.sce.com/PowerandEnvironment/PowerGeneration/MohaveGenerationStation/ |date=14 September 2008 }} Retrieved 24-07-2008</ref>]]
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The [[World energy resources and consumption|world's power demands]] are expected to rise 60% by 2030.<ref name=WorldOutlook2004>
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{{Citation
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|title=World Outlook 2004
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|publisher=[[International Energy Agency|IEA]]
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|date=October 26, 2004
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|url=http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2004/weo2004.pdf
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|accessdate=June 13, 2006
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|page=31
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|location=Paris
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|isbn=92-64-10817-3
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|deadurl=yes
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|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20060622104453/http://iea.org:80/textbase/nppdf/free/2004/weo2004.pdf
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|archivedate=22 June 2006
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|df=dmy
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}}
 
}}
</ref>
 
World organizations and international agencies, like the IEA, are concerned about the [[Environmental impact of fossil fuels|environmental impact of burning fossil fuels]], and coal in particular. The combustion of coal contributes the most to [[acid rain]] and [[air pollution]], and has been connected with [[global warming]]. Due to the chemical composition of coal there are difficulties in removing impurities from the solid fuel prior to its combustion. Modern day coal power plants pollute less than older designs due to new "[[scrubber]]" technologies that filter the exhaust air in smoke stacks; however emission levels of various pollutants are still on average several times greater than natural gas power plants.  In these modern designs, pollution from coal-fired power plants comes from the emission of gases such as carbon dioxide, [[nitrogen oxides]], and [[sulfur dioxide]] into the air.
 
 
Acid rain is caused by the emission of [[nitrogen oxides]] and [[sulfur dioxide]]. These gases may be only mildly acidic themselves, yet when they react with the atmosphere, they create acidic compounds such as [[sulfurous acid]], [[nitric acid]] and [[sulfuric acid]] which fall as rain, hence the term acid rain. In Europe and the U.S.A., stricter emission laws and decline in heavy industries have reduced the environmental hazards associated with this problem, leading to lower emissions after their peak in 1960s.
 
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|- class="hintergrundfarbe6"
 
|+Carbon dioxide and other air pollution of the 9 greatest brown coal power plants in Germany ([[Pollutant release and transfer register|PRTR 2010]])<ref name=PRTR>[http://www.prtr.bund.de/ PRTR - Europäisches Emissionsregister]</ref>
 
!Power plant
 
![[carbon dioxide|CO<sub>2</sub>]] (Tons)
 
![[nitrogen dioxide|NO<sub>x</sub>/NO<sub>2</sub>]] (Tons)
 
![[sulfur dioxide|SO<sub>x</sub>/SO<sub>2</sub>]] (Tons)
 
!Fine Dust (Tons)
 
![[mercury (element)|Hg]] (kg)
 
![[Cadmium|Cd]] (kg)
 
![[Nickel|Ni]] (kg)
 
![[Blei|Pb]] (kg)
 
![[Arsen|As]] (kg)
 
![[Chromium|Cr]] (kg)
 
|-
 
|Power plant Niederaußem|Niederaußem
 
|style="text-align:right"|28,100,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|17,900
 
|style="text-align:right"|6,870
 
|style="text-align:right"|386
 
|style="text-align:right"|499
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|49.9
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Jänschwalde|Jänschwalde*
 
|style="text-align:right"|23,800,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|18,700
 
|style="text-align:right"|21,400
 
|style="text-align:right"|573
 
|style="text-align:right"|592
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|308
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|129
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Weisweiler|Weisweiler
 
|style="text-align:right"|19,900,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|12,700
 
|style="text-align:right"|3,060
 
|style="text-align:right"|456
 
|style="text-align:right"|271
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|103
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|67
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Neurath|Neurath
 
|style="text-align:right"|16,900,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|11,700
 
|style="text-align:right"|3,190
 
|style="text-align:right"|251
 
|style="text-align:right"|181
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|42.2
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Boxberg|Boxberg
 
|style="text-align:right"|15,100,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|10,700
 
|style="text-align:right"|7,810
 
|style="text-align:right"|167
 
|style="text-align:right"|226
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|152
 
|style="text-align:right"|236
 
|style="text-align:right"|<20
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Frimmersdorf|Frimmersdorf
 
|style="text-align:right"|14,400,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|9,070
 
|style="text-align:right"|5,620
 
|style="text-align:right"|257
 
|style="text-align:right"|153
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|35.7
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Lippendorf|Lippendorf**
 
|style="text-align:right"|12,500,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|8,570
 
|style="text-align:right"|13,800
 
|style="text-align:right"|108
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,160
 
|style="text-align:right"|68
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,960
 
|style="text-align:right"|789
 
|style="text-align:right"|21
 
|style="text-align:right"|466
 
|-
 
|Power plant Schwarze Pumpe|Schwarze Pumpe
 
|style="text-align:right"|11,200,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|4,610
 
|style="text-align:right"|7,060
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|style="text-align:right"|243
 
|style="text-align:right"|62.9
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|369
 
|style="text-align:right"|35.8
 
|style="text-align:right"|224
 
|-
 
|Power plant Schkopau|Schkopau
 
|style="text-align:right"|5,120,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|3,320
 
|style="text-align:right"|4,770
 
|style="text-align:right"|74.6
 
|style="text-align:right"|227
 
|style="text-align:right"|129
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|<20
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|- class="hintergrundfarbe5"
 
|Sum without "<"
 
|style="text-align:right"|147,020,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|97,270
 
|style="text-align:right"|73,580
 
|style="text-align:right"|2,273
 
|style="text-align:right"|3,552
 
|style="text-align:right"|260
 
|style="text-align:right"|2,523
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,394
 
|style="text-align:right"|381
 
|style="text-align:right"|690
 
|-
 
|[[Deutschland|DE]] All together 2010<ref name="Trendtabelle">[http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/emissionen/publikationen.htm Emissionsentwicklung 1990 - 2011, klassische Luftschadstoffe, Schwermetalle] Nationale Trendtabellen für die deutsche Berichterstattung atmosphärischer Emissionen seit 1990, Umweltbundesamt (Excel-Tabelle), 2013</ref>
 
|style="text-align:right"|834,511,385
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,328,717
 
|style="text-align:right"|444,035
 
|style="text-align:right"|211,284
 
|style="text-align:right"|9,412
 
|style="text-align:right"|4,723
 
|style="text-align:right"|105,802
 
|style="text-align:right"|193,968
 
|style="text-align:right"|6,120
 
|style="text-align:right"|55,060
 
|-
 
|Share of all together
 
|style="text-align:right"|18 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|7.3 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|17 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|1.1 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|38 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|5.5 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|2.4 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|0.7 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|6.2 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|1.3 %
 
|-
 
|colspan="11"|* with [[Fuel surrogate]] and [[Waste-to-energy]] ** with [[Biosolids#Biosolids|biosolids]]-[[Waste-to-energy]]
 
|}
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|- class="hintergrundfarbe6"
 
|+Carbon dioxide and other air pollution of the 14 greatest stone coal power plants in Germany
 
[[Pollutant release and transfer register|PRTR 2010]]<ref name=PRTR />
 
!Power plant
 
![[carbon dioxide|CO<sub>2</sub>]] (Tons)
 
![[nitrogen dioxide|NO<sub>x</sub>/NO<sub>2</sub>]] (Tons)
 
![[sulfur dioxide|SO<sub>x</sub>/SO<sub>2</sub>]] (Tons)
 
!Fine dust (Tons)
 
![[mercury (element)|Hg]] (kg)
 
![[Cadmium|Cd]] (kg)
 
![[Nickel|Ni]] (kg)
 
![[Blei|Pb]] (kg)
 
![[Arsen|As]] (kg)
 
![[Chromium|Cr]] (kg)
 
|-
 
|Power plant Scholven|Scholven
 
|style="text-align:right"|9,390,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|7,090
 
|style="text-align:right"|4,330
 
|style="text-align:right"|244
 
|style="text-align:right"|135
 
|style="text-align:right"|31
 
|style="text-align:right"|86
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|51
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Mannheim|Mannheim
 
|style="text-align:right"|6,510,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|3,550
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,490
 
|style="text-align:right"|148
 
|style="text-align:right"|146
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|68
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Voerde|Voerde
 
|style="text-align:right"|6,240,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|4,700
 
|style="text-align:right"|2,840
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|style="text-align:right"|38.3
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|<20
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Staudinger Großkrotzenburg|Staudinger*
 
|style="text-align:right"|4,480,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|2,770
 
|style="text-align:right"|665
 
|style="text-align:right"|69.9
 
|style="text-align:right"|45.6
 
|style="text-align:right"|19.1
 
|style="text-align:right"|131
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|113
 
|style="text-align:right"|192
 
|-
 
|Power plant Heyden|Heyden
 
|style="text-align:right"|3,870,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|2,920
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,380
 
|style="text-align:right"|86.7
 
|style="text-align:right"|28.4
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|<20
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Heilbronn|Heilbronn
 
|style="text-align:right"|3,240,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|2,160
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,660
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|style="text-align:right"|34
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|<20
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Gersteinwerk|Werne*
 
|style="text-align:right"|3,140,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,900
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,170
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|style="text-align:right"|11.5
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|<20
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Wilhelmshaven (E.ON)|Wilhelmshaven
 
|style="text-align:right"|3,100,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|2,040
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,390
 
|style="text-align:right"|136
 
|style="text-align:right"|29.9
 
|style="text-align:right"|11.7
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|<20
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Bergkamen|Bergkamen
 
|style="text-align:right"|3,020,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|2,100
 
|style="text-align:right"|2,040
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|style="text-align:right"|18.1
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|<20
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Herne|Herne
 
|style="text-align:right"|2,480,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,790
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,340
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|style="text-align:right"|30.3
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|<20
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Altbach/Deizisau|Altbach**
 
|style="text-align:right"|2,220,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,350
 
|style="text-align:right"|906
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|style="text-align:right"|30
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|<20
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Rheinhafen-Steam-Power plant Karlsruhe|Karlsruhe*
 
|style="text-align:right"|2,170,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,140
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,080
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|style="text-align:right"|19
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|<20
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Veltheim|Veltheim**
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,740,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,290
 
|style="text-align:right"|400
 
|style="text-align:right"|52.6
 
|style="text-align:right"|10.1
 
|style="text-align:right"|22.4
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|156
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|-
 
|Power plant Bexbach|Bexbach
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,300,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|910
 
|style="text-align:right"|746
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|<10
 
|style="text-align:right"|<50
 
|style="text-align:right"|<200
 
|style="text-align:right"|<20
 
|style="text-align:right"|<100
 
|- class="hintergrundfarbe5"
 
|Sum without "<"
 
|style="text-align:right"|52,900,000
 
|style="text-align:right"|35,710
 
|style="text-align:right"|21,437
 
|style="text-align:right"|737
 
|style="text-align:right"|576
 
|style="text-align:right"|84
 
|style="text-align:right"|217
 
|style="text-align:right"| -
 
|style="text-align:right"|388
 
|style="text-align:right"|192
 
|-
 
|[[Deutschland|DE]] All together 2010<ref name="Trendtabelle" />
 
|style="text-align:right"|834,511,385
 
|style="text-align:right"|1,328,717
 
|style="text-align:right"|444,035
 
|style="text-align:right"|211,284
 
|style="text-align:right"|9,412
 
|style="text-align:right"|4,723
 
|style="text-align:right"|105,802
 
|style="text-align:right"|193,968
 
|style="text-align:right"|6,120
 
|style="text-align:right"|55,060
 
|-
 
|Share of all together
 
|style="text-align:right"|6.3 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|2.7 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|4.8 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|0.3 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|6.1 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|1.8 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|0.2 %
 
|style="text-align:right"| -
 
|style="text-align:right"|6.3 %
 
|style="text-align:right"|0.3 %
 
|-
 
|colspan="11"|* with earth gas share, ** with oil- and earth gas share
 
|}
 
 
In 2008, the [[European Environment Agency]] (EEA) documented fuel-dependent emission factors based on actual emissions from power plants in the [[European Union]].<ref name=EEA_AirPollution>
 
{{Citation
 
  | title = Air pollution from electricity-generating large combustion plants
 
  | publisher = European Environment Agency (EEA)
 
  | year = 2008
 
  | url = http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/technical_report_2008_4/at_download/file
 
  | format=PDF
 
  | accessdate =
 
  | pages =
 
  | location = Copenhagen
 
  | isbn = 978-92-9167-355-1 }}
 
</ref>
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! Pollutant !! Hard coal !! Brown coal !! Fuel oil !! Other oil !! Gas
 
|-
 
| CO<sub>2</sub> (g/GJ) || 94,600 || 101,000 || 77,400 || 74,100 || 56,100
 
|-
 
| SO<sub>2</sub> (g/GJ) || 765 || 1,361 || 1,350 || 228 || 0.68
 
|-
 
| NO<sub>x</sub> (g/GJ) || 292 || 183 || 195 || 129 || 93.3
 
|-
 
| CO (g/GJ) || 89.1 || 89.1 || 15.7 || 15.7 || 14.5
 
|-
 
| Non methane organic compounds (g/GJ) || 4.92 || 7.78 || 3.70 || 3.24 || 1.58
 
|-
 
| Particulate matter (g/GJ) || 1,203 || 3,254 || 16 || 1.91 || 0.1
 
|-
 
| Flue gas volume total (m<sup>3</sup>/GJ) || 360 || 444 || 279 || 276 || 272
 
|}
 
 
===Carbon dioxide===
 
{{Main|Carbon dioxide}}
 
[[File:Taichung Thermal Power Plant.JPG|thumb|[[Taichung Power Plant|Taichung coal-fired power plant]] in [[Taiwan]], the world's largest carbon dioxide emitter<ref>[http://thephoenixsun.com/archives/6548 The Phoenix Sun | Dirty numbers | The 200 Most Polluting Power Plants in the World<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>]]
 
 
Electricity generation using carbon based fuels is responsible for a large fraction of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emissions worldwide and for 34% of U.S. man-made carbon dioxide emissions in 2010. In the U.S. 70% of electricity generation is produced from combustion of fossil fuels.<ref>{{cite web
 
|url= http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/sources.html
 
|title=Sources Climate Change
 
|work= US EPA
 
|year=2012
 
|accessdate=August 26, 2012}}</ref>
 
 
Of the fossil fuels, coal is much more carbon intensive than oil or natural gas, resulting in greater volumes of [[carbon dioxide]] emissions per unit of electricity generated. In 2010, coal contributed about 81% of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions from generation and contributed about 45% of the electricity generated in the United States.<ref>{{cite web
 
|url= http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/sources/electricity.html
 
|title=Electricity Sector Emissions Climate Change
 
|work= US EPA
 
|year=2012
 
|accessdate=August 26, 2012}}</ref>  In 2000, the carbon intensity of U.S. coal thermal combustion was 2249&nbsp;lbs/MWh (1,029&nbsp;kg/MWh)<ref>[http://www.epa.gov/cleanrgy/energy-and-you/affect/coal.html ''US EPA Clean Energy—Coal'']</ref> while the carbon intensity of U.S. oil thermal generation was 1672&nbsp;lb/MWh (758&nbsp;kg/MWh or 211&nbsp;kg/[[gigajoule|GJ]])<ref>[http://www.epa.gov/cleanrgy/energy-and-you/affect/oil.html ''US EPA Clean Energy—Oil]</ref> and the carbon intensity of U.S. natural gas thermal production was 1135&nbsp;lb/MWh (515&nbsp;kg/MWh or 143&nbsp;kg/GJ).<ref>[http://www.epa.gov/cleanrgy/energy-and-you/affect/natural-gas.html ''US EPA Clean Energy—Gas'']</ref>
 
 
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (see [[IPCC]]) states that carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and that increased quantities within the atmosphere will "very likely" lead to higher average temperatures on a global scale ([[global warming]]); concerns regarding the potential for such warming to change the global climate prompted IPCC recommendations calling for large cuts to CO<sub>2</sub> emissions worldwide.<ref name="ipcc summary">{{cite web|url=http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ar4-wg1-spm.pdf|title=Summary for policymakers|last=Solomon, S.|year=2007|work=A report of Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change|publisher=IPCC|accessdate=24 March 2010|display-authors=etal}}</ref>
 
 
Emissions may be reduced through more efficient and higher combustion temperature and through more efficient production of electricity within the cycle. [[Carbon capture and storage]] (CCS) of emissions from coal-fired power stations is another alternative but the technology is still being developed and will increase the cost of fossil fuel-based production of electricity. CCS may not be economically viable, unless the price of emitting CO<sub>2</sub> to the atmosphere rises.
 
 
===Particulate matter===
 
Another problem related to coal combustion is the emission of [[Atmospheric particulate matter|particulates]] that have a serious impact on public health.  Power plants remove particulate from the flue gas with the use of a [[Dust collector#Fabric filters|bag house]] or [[electrostatic precipitator]]. Several newer plants that burn coal use a different process, [[Combined cycle#Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)|Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle]] in which [[synthesis gas]] is made out of a reaction between coal and water. The synthesis gas is processed to remove most pollutants and then used initially to power gas turbines. Then the hot exhaust gases from the gas turbines are used to generate steam to power a steam turbine. The pollution levels of such plants are drastically lower than those of "classic" coal power plants.<ref>{{Citation
 
  | title = Energy research at DOE: was it worth it? Energy efficiency and fossil energy research 1978 to 2000
 
  | place =
 
  | publisher = National Academies Press
 
  | year = 2001
 
  | volume =
 
  | edition =
 
  | page = 174
 
  | url =
 
  | doi =
 
  | id =
 
  | isbn = 0-309-07448-7
 
  | author = Committee on Benefits of DOE R&D on Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy, [[United States National Research Council|US NRC]]}}
 
</ref>
 
 
Particulate matter from coal-fired plants can be harmful and have negative health impacts. Studies have shown that exposure to particulate matter is related to an increase of respiratory and cardiac mortality.<ref name="Nel, A. 2005">Nel, A. (2005, May 6). Air Pollution-Related Illness: Effects of Particles. Science, 308(5723), 804-806.</ref> Particulate matter can irritate small airways in the lungs, which can lead to increased problems with asthma, chronic bronchitis, airway obstruction, and gas exchange.<ref name="Nel, A. 2005"/>
 
 
There are different types of particulate matter, depending on the chemical composition and size. The dominant form of particulate matter from coal-fired plants is [[Fly ash|coal fly ash]], but secondary sulfate and nitrate also comprise a major portion of the particulate matter from coal-fired plants.<ref name="Grahame, T. 2007">Grahame, T., & Schlesinger, R. (2007, April 15). Health Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter: Do We Know Enough to Consider Regulating Specific Particle Types or Sources?. Inhalation Toxicology, 19(6–7), 457–481.</ref> Coal fly ash is what remains after the coal has been combusted, so it consists of the incombustible materials that are found in the coal.<ref name="Schobert, H. H. 2002">Schobert, H. H. (2002). ''Energy and Society.'' New York: Taylor & Francis, 241–255.</ref>
 
 
The size and chemical composition of these particles affects the impacts on human health.<ref name="Nel, A. 2005"/><ref name="Grahame, T. 2007"/> Currently coarse (diameter greater than 2.5 μm) and fine (diameter between 0.1 μm and 2.5 μm) particles are regulated, but ultrafine particles (diameter less than 0.1 μm) are currently unregulated, yet they pose many dangers.<ref name="Nel, A. 2005"/> Unfortunately much is still unknown as to which kinds of particulate matter pose the most harm, which makes it difficult to come up with adequate legislation for regulating particulate matter.<ref name="Grahame, T. 2007"/>
 
 
There are several methods of helping to reduce the particulate matter emissions from coal-fired plants. Roughly 80% of the ash falls into an ash hopper, but the rest of the ash then gets carried into the atmosphere to become coal-fly ash.<ref name="Schobert, H. H. 2002"/> Methods of reducing these emissions of particulate matter include:
 
#a [[Baghouse#Fabric filters|baghouse]]
 
#an [[electrostatic precipitator]] (ESP)
 
#[[Combined cycle#Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)|cyclone collector]]
 
The baghouse has a fine filter that collects the ash particles, electrostatic precipitators use an electric field to trap ash particles on high-voltage plates, and cyclone collectors use centrifugal force to trap particles to the walls.<ref name="Schobert, H. H. 2002"/> A recent study indicates that sulfur emissions from fossil fueled power stations in China may have caused a 10-year lull in global warming (1998-2008)<ref>Washington Post 7-5-2011 | http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/capital-weather-gang/post/new-study-blames-10-year-lull-in-global-warming-on-china-coal-use-air-pollution/2011/07/05/gHQAwjV8yH_blog.html</ref>
 
 
===Radioactive trace elements===
 
Coal is a sedimentary rock formed primarily from accumulated plant matter, and it includes many inorganic minerals and elements which were deposited along with organic material during its formation.  As the rest of the Earth's [[Crust (geology)|crust]], coal also contains low levels of [[uranium]], [[thorium]], and other naturally occurring [[radioactive isotopes]] whose release into the environment leads to [[radioactive contamination]]. While these substances are present as very small trace impurities, enough coal is burned that significant amounts of these substances are released. A 1,000 MW coal-burning power plant could have an uncontrolled release of as much as 5.2 metric tons per year of uranium (containing {{convert|74|lb|kg}} of [[uranium-235]]) and 12.8 metric tons per year of thorium.<ref name="ORNL">[http://www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev26-34/text/colmain.html Coal Combustion: Nuclear Resource or Danger?] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070205103749/http://www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev26-34/text/colmain.html |date=5 February 2007 }} by Alex Gabbard, [[ORNL]] Review, Summer/Fall 1993, Vol. 26, Nos. 3 and 4.</ref> In comparison, a 1,000 MW nuclear plant will generate about 30 metric tons of high-level radioactive solid packed waste per year.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Thompson|first1=Linda|title=Vitrification of Nuclear Waste|url=http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2010/ph240/thompson2/|website=PH240 - Fall 2010: Introduction to the Physics of Energy|publisher=Stanford University|accessdate=10 August 2014}}</ref> It is estimated that during 1982, US coal burning released 155 times as much uncontrolled radioactivity into the atmosphere as the [[Three Mile Island incident]].<ref>[http://www.physics.ohio-state.edu/~aubrecht/coalvsnucMarcon.pdf#page=8 Physics.ohio-state.edu]</ref> The collective radioactivity resulting from all coal burning worldwide between 1937 and 2040 is estimated to be 2,700,000 curies or 0.101 EBq.<ref name="ORNL" /> During normal operation, the effective dose equivalent from coal plants is 100 times that from nuclear plants.<ref name="ORNL" /> Normal operation however, is a deceiving baseline for comparison: just the [[Chernobyl disaster|Chernobyl nuclear disaster]] released, in iodine-131 alone, an estimated 1.76 EBq .<ref name="newscientist1">{{cite web|url=http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn20285-fukushima-radioactive-fallout-nears-chernobyl-levels.html |title=Fukushima radioactive fallout nears Chernobyl levels |publisher=Newscientist.com |accessdate=24 April 2011}}</ref> of radioactivity, a value one order of magnitude above this value for total emissions from all coal burned within a century, while the iodine-131, the major radioactive substance which comes out in accident situations, has a half life of just 8 days.
 
 
===Water and air contamination by coal ash===
 
A study released in August 2010 that examined state pollution data in the United States by the organizations [[Environmental Integrity Project]], the [[Sierra Club]] and [[Earthjustice]] found that coal ash produced by coal-fired power plants dumped at sites across 21 U.S. states has contaminated ground water with toxic elements. The contaminants including the poisons [[arsenic]] and [[lead]].<ref name="mcclatchydc.com">[http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2010/08/26/99728/study-of-coal-ash-sites-finds.html "Study of Coal Ash Sites Finds Extensive Water Contamination"] ''McClatchy''; also archived at: [http://www.commondreams.org/headline/2010/08/27-4 commondreams.org]</ref>
 
 
Arsenic has been shown to cause [[skin cancer]], [[bladder cancer]] and [[lung cancer]], and lead damages the [[nervous system]].<ref name=EJ2010>EarthJustice news release, 2010 Sept. 16, [http://unearthed.earthjustice.org/blog/2010-september/new-report-coal-ash-linked-cancer-and-other-maladies "New Report—Coal Ash Linked To Cancer and Other Maladies; Coal's Waste Is Poisoning Communities in 34 States"] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100919000203/http://unearthed.earthjustice.org/blog/2010-september/new-report-coal-ash-linked-cancer-and-other-maladies |date=19 September 2010 }} Earthjustice.org and [[Physicians for Social Responsibility]], [http://earthjustice.org/sites/default/files/files/CoalAsh_Earthjustice.pdf "Coal Ash: The Toxic Threat to Our Communities and Our Environment"] 2010 September 16, earthjustice.org</ref> Coal ash contaminants are also linked to respiratory diseases and other health and developmental problems, and have disrupted local aquatic life.<ref name="mcclatchydc.com"/>  Coal ash also releases a variety of toxic contaminants into nearby air, posing a health threat to those who breath in fugitive coal dust.
 
<ref name=EJ2010/>
 
 
Currently, the EPA does not regulate the disposal of coal ash; regulation is up to the states and the electric power industry has been lobbying to maintain this status quo. Most states require no monitoring of drinking water near coal ash dump sites. The study found an additional 39 contaminated U.S. sites and concluded that the problem of coal ash-caused water contamination is even more extensive in the United States than has been estimated. The study brought to 137 the number of ground water sites across the United States that are contaminated by power plant-produced coal ash.<ref name="mcclatchydc.com"/>
 
 
====Mercury contamination====
 
{{Main|Mercury (element)}}
 
 
U.S. government scientists tested fish in 291 streams around the country for [[mercury contamination]]. They found mercury in every fish tested, according to the study by the [[U.S. Department of the Interior]]. They found mercury even in fish of isolated rural waterways. Twenty five percent of the fish tested had mercury levels above the safety levels determined by the [[U.S. Environmental Protection Agency]] for people who eat the fish regularly. The largest source of mercury contamination in the United States is coal-fueled power plant emissions.<ref>[https://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/20/science/earth/20brfs-MERCURYFOUND_BRF.html?_r=1&em nytimes.com "Mercury Found in Every Fish Tested, Scientists Say"] ''New York Times'', 2009 Aug. 19</ref>
 
 
==Greening of fossil fuel power plants==
 
{{Main|Coal pollution mitigation|Landfill#Reclaiming materials}}
 
{{Further|Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plants}}
 
Several methods exist to improve the efficiency of fossil fuel power plants. A frequently used and cost-efficient method is to convert a plant to run on a different fuel. This includes conversions of coal power plants to biomass or waste<ref>[http://www.archives-suez.com/document/?f=developpement-durable/en/awirs_en.pdf Coal to biomass power plant conversion]</ref><ref>[http://www.25x25.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=579&Itemid=191 Coal to biomass conversion by Georgia Power]</ref><ref>[http://www.ist-world.org/ProjectDetails.aspx?ProjectId=a6556d81d97d41d2be8e31759221b824 Conversion of coal to waste-fired power plant]</ref> and conversions of natural gas power plants to biogas. Conversions of coal powered power plants to waste-fired power plants have an extra benefit in that they can reduce [[landfill]]ing. In addition, waste-fired power plants can be equipped with material recovery, which is also beneficial to the environment. In some instances, [[torrefaction]] of biomass may be needed if biomass is the material the converted fossil fuel power plant will be using.<ref>[https://www.ecn.nl/nl/nieuws/item/successful-test-with-innovative-renewable-energy-source-at-amer-power-plant/ Torrefaction of biomass sometimes needed when using biomass in converted FFPS]</ref>
 
 
Improving energy efficiency of a coal-fired power plant also reduces emissions. For example, emissions can be reduced by upgrading existing plants or building new high-efficiency, low-emissions plants. Such plants emit almost 20% less CO<sub>2</sub> than a subcritical unit operating at a similar load. Over the longer term, HELE plants can further facilitate emission reductions because coal-fired plants operating at the highest efficiencies are also the most appropriate option for [[carbon capture and storage]] retrofit.<ref>{{cite web
 
|url= http://cornerstonemag.net/upgrading-the-efficiency-of-the-worlds-coal-fleet-to-reduce-co2-emissions/
 
|title=Upgrading the Efficiency of the World's Coal Fleet to Reduce CO2 Emissions
 
|first= Ian
 
|last= Barnes
 
|publisher= Cornerstone
 
|date= March 2015
 
|accessdate= }}</ref>
 
 
Regardless of the conversion, a truly low-carbon fossil fuel power plant implements carbon capture and storage, which means that the exhaust CO<sub>2</sub> is not released into the environment and the fossil fuel power plant becomes an [https://web.archive.org/web/20090705094616/http://www.zero-emissionplatform.eu:80/website/library/ emissionless power plant]. A 2006 example of a carbon capture and storage fossil fuel power plant is the pilot Elsam power station near Esbjerg, Denmark.<ref>{{cite web
 
|url= http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/mar2006/2006-03-15-06.asp
 
|title=Europe Tests Carbon Capture at Coal-Fired Power Plant
 
|last=ENS
 
|publisher=Environment News Service
 
|date= March 15, 2006
 
|accessdate= 15 July 2012}}</ref>
 
 
===Coal Pollution Mitigation===
 
[[Coal pollution mitigation|Coal Pollution Mitigation]] is a process whereby coal is chemically washed of [[mineral]]s and impurities, sometimes [[Gasification|gasified]], burned and the resulting flue gases treated with steam, with the purpose of removing sulfur dioxide, and reburned so as to make the carbon dioxide in the flue gas economically recoverable, and storable underground (the latter of which is called "carbon capture and storage"). The coal industry uses the term "clean coal" to describe technologies designed to enhance both the efficiency and the environmental acceptability of coal extraction, preparation and use,<ref>[http://www.australiancoal.com.au/cleanoview.htm AustralianCoal.com.au] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071207111230/http://www.australiancoal.com.au/cleanoview.htm |date=7 December 2007 }}—Clean Coal Overview</ref> but has provided no specific quantitative limits on any emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. Whereas contaminants like sulfur or mercury can be removed from coal, carbon cannot be effectively removed while still leaving a usable fuel, and clean coal plants without carbon sequestration and storage do not significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions. [[James Hansen]] in an open letter to U.S. President [[Barack Obama]] has advocated a "moratorium and phase-out of coal plants that do not capture and store CO<sub>2</sub>". In his book ''[[Storms of My Grandchildren]]'', similarly, Hansen discusses his ''Declaration of Stewardship'' the first principle of which requires "a moratorium on coal-fired power plants that do not capture and sequester carbon dioxide".<ref>{{Cite book|author=Hansen, James |title=Storms of My Grandchildren |publisher=Bloomsbury Publishing |location=London |year=2009 |isbn=1-4088-0745-9 |page=242 }}</ref>
 
 
===Clean gas===
 
Gas-fired power plants can also be modified to run on [[hydrogen]], the latter of which can be created on-site from natural gas.<ref>[https://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-production-natural-gas-reforming Natural gas to hydrogen: Natural gas reforming]</ref> Since 2013, the conversion process has been improved by scientists at Karlsruhe Liquid-metal Laboratory (KALLA) as they succeeded in allowing the soot to be easily removed (soot is a byproduct of the process and damaged the working parts in the past -most notably the nickel-iron-cobaltcatalyst-).<ref>[https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg23230940-200-crack-methane-for-fossil-fuels-without-tears/ The reaction that would give us clean fossil fuels forever]</ref><ref>[https://phys.org/news/2013-04-hydrogen-methane-co2-emissions.html Hydrogen from methane without CO2 emissions]</ref> The soot (which contains the carbon) can then be stored underground and is not released into the atmosphere.
 
 
==Alternatives to fossil fuel power plants==
 
{{split section|date=November 2015}}
 
[[File:U.S. 2014 Electricity Generation By Type.png|thumb|U.S. 2014 Electricity Generation By Type.<ref>[http://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/epm_table_grapher.cfm?t=epmt_1_01 EIA - Electricity Data<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>]]
 
Alternatives to fossil fuel power plants include [[nuclear power]], [[solar power]], [[geothermal power]], [[wind power]], [[tidal power]], hydroelectric power ([[hydroelectricity]]), [[Biomass|biomass power plants]] and other [[renewable energy|renewable energies]] (see [[non-carbon economy]]). Some of these are proven technologies on an industrial scale (i.e. nuclear, wind, tidal, hydroelectric and biomass fired power) others are still in prototype form.
 
 
Nuclear power, and geothermal power may be classed as heat pollutants as they add heat energy to the biosphere that would not otherwise be released.{{Citation needed|date=January 2013}} The net quantity of energy conversion within the biosphere due to the utilisation of wind power, solar power, tidal power, hydroelectric power (hydroelectricity) is static and is derived from the effects of sunlight and the movement of the moon and planets.
 
 
Generally, the cost of electrical energy produced by non fossil fuel burning power plants is greater than that produced by burning fossil fuels. This statement however only includes the cost to produce the electrical energy and does not take into account indirect costs associated with the many pollutants created by burning fossil fuels (e.g. increased hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases caused by fine smoke particles).
 
 
===Relative cost by generation source===
 
{{See also|Relative cost of electricity generated by different sources}}
 
 
When comparing power plant costs, it is customary to start by calculating the cost of power at the generator terminals by considering several main factors. External costs such as connections costs, the effect of each plant on the distribution grid are considered separately as an additional cost to the calculated power cost at the terminals.
 
 
Initial factors considered are:
 
*Capital costs, including waste disposal and decommissioning costs for nuclear energy.
 
*Operating and maintenance costs.
 
*Fuel costs for fossil fuel and biomass sources, and which may be negative for wastes.
 
*Likely annual hours per year run or load factor, which may be as low as 30% for wind energy, or as high as 90% for nuclear energy.
 
*Offset sales of heat, for example in combined heat and power district heating (CHP/DH).
 
 
These costs occur over the 30–50 year life of the fossil fuel power plants,  using [[discounted cash flow]]s. In general large fossil plants are attractive due to their low initial capital costs—typically around £750–£1000 per kilowatt electrical compared to perhaps £1500 per kilowatt for onshore wind.{{Citation needed|date=November 2010}}
 
 
==See also==
 
{{div col||20em|small=yes}}
 
* [[Biomass]]
 
* [[Boiler (power generation)]]
 
* [[Coal analyzer]]
 
* [[Coal mining]]
 
* [[Coal power in the United States]]
 
* [[Combined heat and power]]
 
* [[Cooling tower system]]
 
* [[Environmental impact of the coal industry]]
 
* [[Flue gas stacks]]
 
* [[Fossil fuel phase-out]]
 
* [[Geothermal power]]
 
* [[Global warming]]
 
* [[Greenhouse gas]]
 
* [[Mercury vapor turbine]]
 
* [[Natural gas]]
 
* [[List of coal power stations]]
 
* [[List of thermal power station failures]]
 
* [[Power station]]
 
* [[Relative cost of electricity generated by different sources]]
 
* [[Renewable energy power station]]
 
* [[Steam turbine]]
 
* [[Thermal power station]]
 
* [[Water-tube boiler]]
 
{{div col end}}
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
 
==Bibliography==
 
*''Steam: Its Generation and Use'' (2005). 41st edition, Babcock & Wilcox Company, {{ISBN|0-9634570-0-4}}
 
*''Steam Plant Operation'' (2011). 9th edition, Everett B. Woodruff, Herbert B. Lammers, Thomas F. Lammers (coauthors), [[McGraw-Hill]] Professional, {{ISBN|978-0-07-166796-8}}
 
*''Power Generation Handbook: Fundamentals of Low-Emission, High-Efficiency Power Plant Operation'' (2012). 2nd edition. Philip Kiameh, McGraw-Hill Professional, {{ISBN|978-0-07-177227-3}}
 
*''Standard Handbook of Powerplant Engineering'' (1997). 2nd edition, Thomas C. Elliott, Kao Chen, Robert Swanekamp (coauthors), McGraw-Hill Professional, {{ISBN|0-07-019435-1}}
 
  
==External links==
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'''koth_coalplant_b7''' is a reworked version of [[koth_ashville]]. It is a [[King of The Hill]] map, featuring roughly identical gameplay to koth_ashville and a revamped environment akin to [[cp_foundry]].
{{Commons category|Fossil fuel-fired power plants}}
+
*[http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Conventional_coal-fired_power_plant Conventional coal-fired power plant]
+
*{{cite web |url=http://www.tva.gov/power/coalart.htm |title=Power plant diagram |author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |date= |website=tva.gov |publisher=[[Tennessee Valley Authority]] |access-date= |quote=}}
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*[https://web.archive.org/web/20060420181534/http://www.marleyct.com:80/wet/ Large industrial cooling towers]
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*[http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Existing_U.S._Coal_Plants Statistics on existing U.S. coal-fired plants]
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*[http://www.whitebunnywabbit.com/news/0945/toxic-fumes-rise-cooling-tower-notices-dangerous-coal-power.html Coal Power more deadly than Nuclear]
+
*[https://books.google.com/books?id=ZiQDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA137&dq=popular+science+1949+%22earth+satellite+vehicle%22&hl=en&ei=xCTiTIKFAcWnnQesoInVDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=true '' "Must We Suffer Smoke" '', May 1949, Popular Science] article on early methods of scrubbing emissions from coal-fired power plants
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*[https://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo44902 The Future of Coal: Utilizing America’s Abundant Energy Resources: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, First Session, July 25, 2013]
+
*[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hdi4onAQBWQ U.S. President Obama threatens bankruptcy to anyone building a coal-fired power plant in the U.S.] 2008 interview with [[San Francisco Gate]]
+
*[http://www.power-eng.com/gas.html Gas Power Plant News from Power Engineering Magazine]
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{{Authority control}}
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== Usage in competitive ==
{{Portal bar|Energy}}
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{{Coalplant/MapLeagueInclusionTable}}
  
{{DEFAULTSORT:Fossil Fuel Power Plant}}
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{{Active Maps Navbox}}{{All Maps Navbox|y}}
[[Category:Fossil fuel power stations| Fossil fuel power station]]
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[[Category:Power station technology]]
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Latest revision as of 06:38, 10 August 2017

Coalplant
[e][h]
Coalplant.jpg
Map Information
Map Type:
File Name:
koth_coalplant_b7
Version:
Beta 7
First Released:
24 June 2013
Last Updated:
15 January 2014
Official Map:
IncorrectIcon.png
Competitive Information
Game Modes:
Adapted From:
League Popularity:
Moderate
In Current Rotations:
HL:
ETF2L-Icon2.png
Total Inclusions:
6v6:
5 inclusions (25th)
HL:
2 inclusions (22nd)
Links
Download Link Steam Workshop Page TF2Maps.net Forum Thread TeamFortressTV Forum Thread
Control Point.png Maps portal

koth_coalplant_b7 is a reworked version of koth_ashville. It is a King of The Hill map, featuring roughly identical gameplay to koth_ashville and a revamped environment akin to cp_foundry.

Usage in competitive[edit]

Seasonal Inclusions by League
[view] Map version 4v4 6v6 Highlander
UGC-Icon2.png UGC UGC-Icon2.png UGC ETF2L-Icon2.png ETF2L EseaLogo.png ESEA Ozfortress Icon.png ozfortress AsiaFortress-Icon.png AsiaFortress UGC-Icon2.png UGC ETF2L-Icon2.png ETF2L
Download Link cp_ashville_b6 Season Season 12
Download Link koth_coalplant_b7 Season 16 Season Season 8 Season 12 Season 11
Season 15 Season
Season 14 Season
Download Link koth_coalplant_b2 Season Season 15
Download Link koth_ashville_rc1 Season 7 Season 13 Season Season 7 Season 8 Season 7 Season 19
Season 5 Season 11 Season Season 7 Season 6 Season 18
Season 4 Season 6 Season Season 6 Season 5 Season 16
Season 3 Season Season 5 Season 15
Season 2 Season Season 13
Season 1 Season Season 11
Season Season 8
Season Season 6
Season Season 5
Total inclusions 6 out of 15 6 out of 28 out of 31 3 out of 28 4 out of 23 4 out of 14 10 out of 26 1 out of 17

Bold italics denotes the current or latest season

Official map
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